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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (66)
  • Blackwell Science Inc  (12)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Stereospecific ring openings of optically active 2,3-epoxy alcohols were performed by the reaction of 1, 3, 5, and 7 with carbon disulfide and sodium hydride to give the five-membered xanthates 2, 4, 6, and 8. Both enantiomers of 2-mercapto-1,3-diol triacetates, 11 and 14, were derived from 4 and 6, respectively. The ring opening reaction proceeded at -78°C to -30°C, and the yields were around 80%. However, at a higher temperature between 0°C to room temperature, a complicated reaction took place and led to the formation of two isomers of the cyclic thiol carbonates 15 and 16 from 1 or 5. These processes were also stereospecific, and mechanisms have been proposed. In the case of the 3,4-epoxy alcohol 20, the epoxide ring opening gave the six-membered xanthate 21 stereospecifically.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The octameric oligomers of 1-(N-substituted-carbamoyl)-aziridine, i.e., N-ureanized-oligo-ethylenimines, form Cu(II) complexes. When the N-substituents are phenyl(1, 3), methyl(2), and p-tolyl(4) groups, the main portions of the Cu(II)-complexes are binuclear. The binuclear oligomer-Cu(II) complexes showed characteristic properties of photo-reduction of Cu(II) species, giving rise to stable yellow Cu(I) species. The ease of photo reduction strongly depends on the oligomer structures, especially on the nature of the pendant-urea groups, i.e., 4 〉 1,3 〉 2. In the series of aromatic type urea-oligomers, highly stable photo-radicals were observed in ESR. By using an optically active oligomer (3) the molecular requirements for these characteristic properties were investigated with circular dichroism and cyclic voltammometry. And one of the plausible structures was deduced as the model of binuclear Cu(II) sites surrounded by oligomeric environments.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 1,1,9,9-tetrafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane ; thermal analysis ; vapor deposition polymerization ; film ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,1,9,9-Tetrafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane (1) was prepared successfully as white crystals in 72% yield via two-step reactions from 1,9-diketo[2.2]-paracyclophane. The polymerization of 1 by the vapor deposition method was carried out at pyrolysis temperature range of 400 to 800°C and deposition temperature range of -20 to 20°C, and a tough, transparent poly(α,α-difluoro-p-xylylene) film was obtained in 72% yield at the pyrolysis temperature of 750°C and the deposition temperature of -20°C. It was found that the pyrolysis of 1 gave a reactive α,α-difluoro-p-xylylene, which polymerized on the head-to-tail addition to give poly(α,α-difluoro-p-xylylene). Some properties such as solubility, thermal stability, glass transition temperature, and density for poly(α,α-difluoro-p-xylylene) were studied. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: aromatic bisketene ; aromatic polyesters ; aromatic polyamides ; addition reaction ; benzoquinones ; benzoquinone diimines ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,4-Dicarbonyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene (1) was synthesized by the dehydrochlorination reaction of 1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dicarbonyl chloride with triethylamine and obtained as its very dilute solution, but it easily polymerized in the concentration as high as 0.1 mol/L to give its polymer. 1 generated in situ by the dehydrochlorination reaction of 1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dicarbonyl chloride in a deoxygenated toluene polymerized alternatingly with benzoquinones such as 2-dodecylthio-p-benzoquinone, 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-p-benzoquinone, p-benzoquinone, and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone, and with benzoquinone diimines such as N,N′-diethoxycarbonyl-p-benzoquinone diimine, N,N′-dibenzoyl-p-benzoquinone diimine, and N,N′-diphenyl-p-benzoquinone diimine to give aromatic polyesters and polyamides, respectively. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci A: Polym Chem 36: 1929-1936, 1998
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 232 (1937), S. 423-426 
    ISSN: 0863-1786
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0749-1581
    Keywords: NMR ; 1H NMR ; 13C NMR ; 15N NMR ; 27Al NMR ; isothiocyanate ; complexes ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the complexes of aluminum(III) with isothiocyanate ion in water-acetone mixtures has been completed. At temperatures low enough to slow proton and ligand exchange, separate resonance signals are observed for coordinated and bulk H2O (1H) and NCS- (13C, 15N), and Al3+ (27Al) in each complex. The 1H NMR spectra reveal six sets of signals for the complexes, [Al(H2O)6]3+ through [Al(H2O)(NCS)5]2-, including isomers for three of the species. Signal area measurements show a decrease in the Al3+ hydration number with increasing NCS- concentration, as this anion replaces water in the solvation shell. In the 27Al NMR spectra of these systems, signals for seven complexes, [Al(H2O)6]3+ through [Al(NCS)6]3-, are observed, with chemical shifts increasing by about 6 ppm with each additional NCS-. Although broadened somewhat by the Al(III) quadrupole, the 13C and 15N NMR spectra also reveal coordinated NCS- signals for these complexes, including 27Al—N13CS J-coupling in [Al(NCS)6]3-. Area evaluations of the 15N NMR signals provide an excellent complement to the 1H hydration number data. These NMR results demonstrate that a multinuclear approach to the study of solution complexes can provide detailed structural information about the species being formed.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Introduction: Previous studies have suggested that paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) of vagal origin often occurs at night and PAF of sympathetic origin occurs during the daytime; however, autonomic tone after spontaneous termination of PAF has not been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis the relationship between the time of PAF onset and autonomic tone before and after PAF. Methods and Results: Twenty-three patients ( 65 ± 2 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, had one or more episodes of PAF (〉30 min), and had maintained normal sinus rhythm for 〉60 min before/after PAF were enrolled in this study. Mean duration of PAF was 6.2 ± 1.2 hours. HRV parameters were analyzed in a 10-minutes section at 60 minutes, 20 minutes, and immediately before the onset of PAF and after its termination. PAF began at night in 14 patients (group N) and during the daytime in 9 patients (group D). In group N, the high-frequency (HF) component and low-frequency (LF) component showed a significant decrease after PAF; PAF was preceded by a gradual increase in HF and LF. Changes in the LF/HF ratio, however, did not occur before or after PAF. Conversely, group D showed a significant increase in the LF/HF ratio before PAF and a decrease in LF and the LF/HF ratio after PAF, but no changes in HF. These changes in HRV parameters were not influenced by the duration or termination time of PAF. Conclusion: This study suggests that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in both the initiation and termination of PAF. Furthermore, the time of PAF onset influences the autonomic tone at the initiation and termination of PAF. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. 14, pp. 559-564, June 2003)
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1540-8167
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Connexin43 Expression in DCM. Introduction: Gap junction alterations recently have been implicated in chronic heart failure, but direct evidence between gap junction manifestation in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is lacking. The current study examines whether qualitative changes or altered distribution of gap junctional connexin43 (Cx43) are related to global ventricular function and ventricular arrhythmia in DCM. Methods and Results: We investigated 31 DCM patients (52 ± 15 years) and 5 control subjects (55 ± 10 years). Expression of Cx43 proteins was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using immunoconfocal microscopy in right ventricular biopsy specimens from each patient. The expression level of Cx43 protein was defined as the proportion of tissue area occupied by Cx43 (percent tissue area) in each test area. Cx43 immunoreactive signal expressed as percent tissue area was not correlated with the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.17). Of 31 DCM patients, 23% subsequently developed sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), which allowed retrospective division of the samples into two groups: non-VT and VT. Left ventricular ejection fraction was comparable in both groups, but the percent tissue area in the VT groups was significantly decreased compared with that of the non-VT groups (P = 0.03). Furthermore, Cx43 protein was distributed heterogeneously in the VT groups (P 〈 0.0001). Conclusion: Heterogeneous reduction of Cx43 protein may result in development of malignant ventricular arrhythmia in DCM.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1524-475X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim: This study was aimed to confirm the usefulness of allogeneic cultured dermal substitute (CDS) in the treatment of skin defects after excision of skin cancer. Methods: Eleven elderly patients (mean age of 76.3 year old) with skin cancer were included in this study. Most of the patients had basic disease such as diabetes or ASO. Allogeneic CDS used in the study were produced at Kitasato University. The CDS were applied to skin defects with exposing bone or tendon after oncological surgery, and changed once or twice a week until the open wound became suitable for autologous skin grafting or healed completely. Results: Healthy granulation tissue was formed to cover the exposed bone or tendon in all cases. Only in one case, the treatment with allogeneic CDS was abandoned owing to undesirable infection. In eight cases, appropriate wound beds acceptable for autologous skin graft were prepared. In other two cases, the skin defect became smaller and eventually closed without skin graft. In ten cases with or without skin graft, undesirable scar contracture was not observed over prolonged follow-up. Conclusions: Elderly patients with skin cancer provide reconstructive surgeons with challenging problems when bone or bare tendon is exposed after oncological surgery. Flap transfer might be complicated especially when the patients suffered from a basic disease such as diabetes or ASO. This study has confirmed that the use of allogeneic CDS is a safe and reliable method to achieve wound healing in those high-risk patients.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Wound repair and regeneration 12 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1524-475X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The authors have developed a CDS by culturing fibroblasts on the two-layered spongy matrix of hyaluronic acid (HA) and atelo-collagen (Col). This CDS is designed to promote wound healing by synergistic effect of fibroblasts and matrix. Both HA and Col molecules seem to function biologically in the process of wound healing. HA molecules play a critical role in several cellular functions such as migration and proliferation by promoting adhesion and disadhesion between the cell and the tissue substrate. Besides providing structural support and strength to the new tissue, Col molecules have a profound effect on the cells within and on its matrix. Col and Col-derived peptides act as chemoattractants for fibroblasts in vitro and may have a similar activity in vivo. Fibroblasts seeded on the Col surface of two-layered spongy matrix were found to attach, proliferate, and release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as fibronectin. The cryopreserved CDS was found to keep the original potency to release VEGF after thawing followed by re-culturing. Multi-center's clinical research using allogeneic CDS has been proceeded as a national millennium project for regenerative medicine. These products are able to be stored in a freezer and transported to other hospitals in a frozen state. The clinical evaluation involving 180 cases has been already conducted using allogeneic cryopreserved CDS at 30 hospitals across Japan since April 2001. The results obtained in our clinical study suggest that this type of allogeneic CDS is able to provide an effective therapy for patients with severe full-thickness skin defects. These excellent clinical evaluations seem to be closely related to the results obtained in this fundamental study, especially related to the potency of cryopreserved allogeneic CDS to release VEGF and fibronectin.
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