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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 19 (1977), S. 157-158 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Glucoamylase and glucose oxidase have been immobilized on carbodiimide-treated activated carbon particles of various sizes. Loading data indicate nonuniform distribution of immobilized enzyme within the porous support particles. Catalysts with different enzyme loading and overall activities have been prepared by varying enzyme concentration in the immobilizing solution. Analysis of these results by a new method based entirely upon experimentally observable catalyst properties indicates that intrinsic catalytic activity is reduced by immobilization of both enzymes. Immobilized glucoamylase intrinsic activity decreases with increasing enzyme loading, and similar behavior is suggested by immobilized glucose oxidase data analysis. The overall activity data interpretation method should prove useful in other immobilized enzyme characterization research, especially in situations where the intraparticle distribution of immobilized enzyme is nonuniform and unknown.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One of the major difficulties with mathematical models of staged separation systems is the large dimensionality of the process model. This paper is concerned with simple (reduced-order) steady-state and dynamic models for processes such as distillation, absorption and extraction. The model reduction procedure is based on approximating the composition and flow profiles in the column using polynomials rather than as discrete functions of the stages. The number of equations required to describe the system is thus drastically reduced. The method is developed using a simple absorber system. In the second part of this paper, the application of the method to nonlinear multicomponent separation systems is demonstrated.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The kinetic behavior of a system of multiple enzyme in solution has been studied in a variable volume batch reactor at pH 5, controlled dissolved oxygen concentration, and T = 30°C. The enzymes used were glucoamylase (R. delemar), glucose oxidase (A. niger), and gluconolactonase (A. niger), all of which are important commercial biocatalysts, and a disaccharide was employed as the starting substrate. This study includes the basic kinetic properties of individual enzymes and interactions between components of the reaction mixture. Classical Michaelis-Menten single substrate or two substrate kinetic with parameters based on initial rate data predict correctly the batch time course of the sequential reaction network.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Apparent kinetics and pH-activity relationships have been determined for glucoamylase and glucose oxidase immobilized on activated carbon using a diimide method. Reaction rate expressions of Michaelis-Menten form adequately approximate the observed kinetics for both enzyme preparations over the ranges of substrate concentrations considered. Influences of external mass transfer as well as substrate and product adsorption on interpretation of the experimental data have been examined. Immobilization of a glucose oxidase-gluconolactonase enzyme mixture has been found to increase substantially the ratio of gluconolactonase to glucose oxidase activities compared to the corresponding activity ratio for these enzymes in solution.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Proteins have been immobilized in porous support particles held in a fixed-bed reactor through which protein solution is continuously circulated. Changing the recirculation flow rate alters the observed immobilization kinetics and the maximum enzyme loading which can be achieved for glucose oxidase and glucoamylase on carbodiimide-treated activated carbon and for glucoamylase immobilized on CNBr-Sepharose 4B. Direct microscopic examination of FITC-labelled protein in sectioned Sepharose particles and indirect activity-loading studies with activated carbon-enzyme conjugates all indicate that immobilized enzyme is increasingly localized near the outer surface of the support particles at larger recirculation flow rates. Restricted diffusion of enzymes may be implicated in this phenomenon. These contacting effects may be significant considerations in the scaleup of processes for protein impregnation in porous supports, since apparent activity and stability of the final preparation depend on internal protein distribution.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In Part I, a novel method for reducing the order of models for countercurrent staged separation systems was presented. In this paper, the method is applied to the modeling and simulation of nonlinear multicomponent distillation systems. Some additional properties of the model reduction procedure are derived. The accuracy of the approximation is established by comparison of the steady-state profiles and transient responses to that of rigorous dynamic models. The results indicate that the proposed technique is an effective way of reducing the number of equations needed to model stagewise multicomponent separation systems.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 21 (1979), S. 461-476 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Based upon its superior catalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, a bituminous coal-based activated carbon was selected for investigations of pretreatment and enzyme immobilization methods. Pretreatments considered include acid washing, exposure to strong oxidizing agents, contact with concentrated peroxide solutions, nitration and amination, isothiocyanate derivatization, silanization, and stearic acid coating. Effects of these pretreatments on morphology and trace-metal content of the carbon pellets have been studied using scanning electron microscopy and dispersive analysis of x rays. Immobilization of glucoamylase by adsorption, glutaraldehyde crosslinking, and covalent attachment to carbon activated by water-soluble diimide or diazotization have been examined. These different enzyme-carbon catalysts have been characterized by their enzyme loading, enzyme activity, catalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, or combinations of these measures of performance.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0029-5981
    Keywords: piezoelectric resonators ; numerical algorithms ; largescale eigenvalue problems ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Two algorithms for eigenvalue problems in piezoelectric finite element analyses are introduced. The first algorithm involves the use of Lanczos method with a new matrix storage scheme, while the second algorithm uses a Rayleigh quotient iteration scheme. In both solution methods, schemes are implemented to reduce storage requirements and solution time. Both solution methods also seek to preserve the sparsity structure of the stiffness matrix to realize major savings in memory.In the Lanczos method with the new storage scheme, the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix is optimized by mixing the electrical degree of freedom with the mechanical degrees of freedom. The unique structural pattern of the consistent mass matrix is exploited to reduce storage requirements. These major reductions in memory requirements for both the stiffness and mass matrices also provided large savings in computational time. In the Rayleigh quotient iteration method, an algorithm for generating good initial eigenpairs is employed to improve its overall convergence rate, and its convergence stability in the regions of closely spaced eigenvalues and repeated eigenvalues. The initial eigenvectors are obtained by interpolation from a coarse mesh. In order for this multi-mesh iterative method to be effective, an eigenvector of interest in the fine mesh must resemble an eigenvector in the coarse mesh. Hence, the method is effective for finding the set of eigenpairs in the low-frequency range, while the Lanczos method with a mixed electromechanical matrix can be used for any frequency range. Results of example problems are presented to show the savings in solution time and storage requirements of the proposed algorithms when compared with the existing algorithms in the literature.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 19 (1977), S. 769-775 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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