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  • Articles  (31)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (31)
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  • Articles  (31)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study has been made of anomalous diffraction effects in the sizing of solid particles in liquids using a Malvern laser diffraction sizer. The particles were N.B.S. standard reference material 1004 glass spheres. The five liquids used were chosen to give a range of refractive index (R.I.) above and below that of the glass; the ratio of solid R.I. to liquid R.I. (m) ranged from 0.92 to 1.15. Measurements were made of the change in the light energy distribution pattern as the value of | m - 1 | was in creased or reduced towards zero. At high values of | m - 1 | the measured light energy distribution pattern was predicted adequately by the Fraunhofer diffraction approximation to Mie theory and the Fraunhofer computer software could be used to derive particle size distribution from the light energy pattern. For values of | m - 1 | near to zero, the Fraunhofer approach was in error but the anomalous diffraction approximation and software proved adequate for the back-calculation of size distribution from energy pattern.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mass spectrometry provides an extremely sensitive method for the identification and quantification of modified nucleosides and hence for determining chemical modifications of nucleic acids. When mass spectrometry is used in conjunction with a new high-performance liquid chromatographic system capable of separating 15 methylated and naturally occurring nucleosides, this allows the quantification of products of in vitro DNA methylation. With synthetic (2H3)methyl-labeled methylnucleosides as internal references, the distribution of methylated products formed when calf thymus DNA was reacted with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea(MeNU) was determined. Five modified products, 1-methyldeoxyadenosine(m1dA), 3-methyldeoxycytidine(m3dC), 7-methyldeoxyguanosine(m7dG), 3-methylthymidine(m3T) and O4-methylthymidine(m4T) were detected and the relative distributions were measured. The ability of mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (tandem mass spectrometry) to increase specificity and sensitivity in this determination is demonstrated and its application to in vivo studies is suggested.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; metal ion toxicity ; vacuole ; protein sorting ; gene regulation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The metal ions, Cu2+/+ and Fe3+/2+, are essential co-factors for a wide variety of enzymatic reactions. However, both metal ions are toxic when hyper-accumulated or maldistributed within cells due to their ability to generate damaging free radicals or through the displacement of other physiological metal ions from metalloproteins. Although copper transport into yeast cells is apparently independent of iron, the known dependence on Cu2+ for high affinity transport of Fe2+ into yeast cells has established a physiological link between these two trace metal ions. In this study we demonstrate that proteins encoded by genes previously demonstrated to play critical roles in vacuole assembly or acidification, PEP3, PEP5 and VMA3, are also required for normal copper and iron metal ion homeostasis. Yeast cells lacking a functional PEP3 or PEP5 gene are hypersensitive to copper and render the normally iron-repressible FET3 gene, encoding a multi-copper Fe(II) oxidase involved in Fe2+ transport, also repressible by exogenous copper ions. The inability of these same vacuolar mutant strains to repress FET3 mRNA levels in the presence of an iron-unresponsive allele of the AFT1 regulatory gene are consistent with alterations in the intracellular distribution or redox states of Fe3+/2+ in the presence of elevated extracellular concentrations of copper ions. Therefore, the yeast vacuole is an important organelle for maintaining the homeostatic convergence of the essential yet toxic copper and iron ions. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 59 (1996), S. 1479-1488 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Molecular weight, root-mean-square radius, and conformational information obtained from aqueous size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and multiangle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detection are examined for amine-functional polymers. These include homopolymers and copolymers of poly(ethenylformamide) and cationic poly(vinylamine). Light-scattering studies for poly(ethenylformamide) employing 15 angles of detection are used to calculate molecular weights as high as 700,000 daltons with a root-mean-square radius of nearly 50 nm. Calculated conformational coefficients indicate a random-coil configuration at low molecular weights and a more compacted conformation at high molecular weights. Molecular weights and root-mean-square radius values for cationic poly(vinylamine) are determined using a three-angle MALLS detector. Root-mean-square radius is strongly dependent on the ionic strength of the mobile phase. Cationic poly(vinylamine) exhibits a rod-like conformation at both low and high ionic strength. Explanations are proposed for this behavior. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 62 (1996), S. 845-845 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0269-3879
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 27 (1987), S. 271-276 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Fatigue testing of polymers has revealed significant differences between the fatigue response of polymers and metals. Generally, fatigue failure in metals is a process of crack initiation, propagation, and failure. Also, fatigue damage in metals is cumulative and cycle dependent, but remains essentially independent of test frequency. Unlike that of metals, the fatigue behavior of polymers is influenced by viscoelastic effects. At high frequencies, softening and melting occur, and fatigue failure depends largely on the test frequency. At lower frequencies, fatigue failure becomes less sensitive to test frequency and results from crack initiation and propagation. These polymer characteristics arise from the production of hysteresis energy during fatigue. A portion of this energy is released as heat, some of which is dissipated, but most is absorbed in the sample, raising its temperature. This temperature rise leads to degradation of the material and a short fatigue life. Experiments were conducted to measure hysteresis energy and temperature rise for a talc-filled polypropylene. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the energy and temperature distribution during fatigue. Correlation of the temperature rise predicted by the model with that observed experimentally provided values for the various energy terms that quantitatively defined the thermomechanical fatigue response of this polymer.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0449-2978
    Keywords: Physics ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The modified Birnboim transducer and a computerized data acquisition and processing system (DAPS) for the measurement of viscoelastic properties of macromolecular solutions are described. The apparatus has a continuous frequency range from 0.01 to ca. 700 Hz and a viscosity range from 2 to ca. 30,000 poise (sample volume 1 to 1.5 cm2). Sample temperature is controlled to within 0.002°C from -30°C to +80°C. Working displacements are 102 to 104 Å. The DAPS is designed for precise determinations of the magnitudes and relative phasing of two sinusoidally time-varying electrical signals (0.02%, 0.02°, respectively, for signals 〉 2 V peak) from 10-2 to 105 Hz. Cross-correlation techniques are used for noise rejection. For frequencies below 30 Hz values of the storage (G') and loss (G″) components of the complex shear modulus (G*) of 1 dyne/cm2 are determined to within 10% and 4%, respectively, for liquids of moderately low viscosity. Proportionately higher measurement accuracies for typical values of G' and G″ and the wide frequency and viscosity ranges permit extrapolation to infinite dilution and studies of limited molecular flexibility for many polymer - solvent systems.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, N.Y. : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 50 (1992), S. 143-150 
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: aneuploidy ; chemoprevention ; chronic ulcerative colitis (CUC) ; colonic DNA content ; flow cytometry ; intermediate biomarker ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Aneuploid cell populations can be defined as those that contain an abnormal number of chromosomes or an abnormal amount of DNA. Aneuploidy can be reliably detected by flow cytometric analysis of DNA content. This technique not only identifies aneuploid cell populations but can also quantify the percent of cells in various phases of the cell cycle, thus giving an indication of the proliferative activity of a tissue. Aneuploidy occurs in approximately 60% of established colorectal cancers, and many studies have demonstrated that patients with aneuploid tumors have a poorer prognosis than patients with diploid colon cancers. Some studies have suggested that the proliferative rate of tumors, as assessed by the percent of cells in S phase, also has prognostic significance. Until recently, aneuploidy was thought to occur only in malignant tissues, but it has been clearly shown that aneuploid cell populations can be identified in benign adenomatous polyps as well as in non-neoplastic-appearing mucosa of patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and Barrett's esophagus. In chronic ulcerative colitis, aneuploidy occurs more frequently in patients with dysplasia or cancer than in those with no evidence of neoplasia. Similarly, dysplastic and malignant biopsies are more commonly aneuploid than non-neoplastic biopsies. Patients who have undergone colectomy for cance or dysplasia in the setting of chronic ulcerative colitis frequently have multiple areas of aneuploidy throughout the remainder of their colon. Whether aneuploidy can be useful as a marker of cancer risk in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis deserves further investigation. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: poly(ethylene terephthalate), uniaxially drawn, near-surface structure of ; surface structure of drawn PET films, attenuated total-reflectance ; IR spectroscopy of ; crystallinity and near-surface structure of drawn PET ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Relative amounts of surface crystallinity and amorphous structure and their respective surface orientations were examined as a function of depth from the surface for a series of uniaxially drawn poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) films using polarized attenuated total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Qualitative depth resolution on a scale from ca. 0.5 to 5 μm is obtained. The results indicate a higher degree of extended trans segments and a higher degree of extended trans orientation near the surface in the machine direction, relative to the bulk film. These quantities also increase with increasing uniaxial draw ratio. No evidence for orientation of the gauche conformer at the surface as a function of uniaxial draw ratio is observed. All conclusions are consistent with the presence of increased crystallinity at the surface of the films. Increases in trans structure and orientation measured by ATR-IR measurements are consistent with bulk crystallinity measurements from density and x-ray scattering measurements.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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