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  • 1
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The title sulphenamides were pyrolysed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 310-410°C, pressures of 8-15 Torr and residence times of 0·4-2 s using toluene as the carrier gas. N-(tert-Butylthio)allylamine formed 73 ± 4% isobutene, 23 ± 3% propene and N-allylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for the formation of isobutene and propene, respectively, followed the Arrhenius equations kC4(s-1) = 1012·52 ± 0·36 exp(-163 ± 5 kJ mol-1 RT) and kC3(s-1) = 1010·99 ± 0·29 exp(-151 ± 4 kJ mol-1 RT) N-(tert-Butylthio)diethylamine gave 97 ± 1% isobutene, 1·9 ± 0·4% isobutane and N,N-diethylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for isobutene elimination followed the Arrhenius equation k(s-1) = 1013·45 ± 0·24 exp(-164 ± 3 kJ mol-1 RT). The formation of the products is interpreted in terms of an elimination reaction with a unimolecular, four-centered, cyclic transition state. The reactivity of these sulphenamides was found to be much higher than that of previously studied alkyl or aryl tert-butyl sulphides and disulphides.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The transition-state geometries of retroene elimination reactions of propene from allylamines have been calculated by using the semiempirical AM1 method. The most favored geometry resembles a half chair or a flattened boat. It is also found that the transition states are of polar character and that the negative charge on the N atom decreases in the transition state; thus, the reaction is favored by electron donor substituents on the nitrogen atom, as observed experimentally. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 4 (1991), S. 579-585 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The pyrolysis kinetics of RC6H4SS—t—C4H9 (R=H, p-NO2, p-Cl, p-F) were determined at 390-450°C and 7-15 Torr in a stirred-flow reactor using toluene as carrier gas. The reaction products were 95% isobutene, 5% isobutane and the corresponding RC6H4SSH disulphanes. The first-order rate constants, k (s-1), based on isobutene production, followed the Arrhenius equations: phenyl tert-butyl disulphide, k = 1013.49±0.31 exp (- 182 ± 4 kJ mol-1)(RT)-1; pnitrophenyl tert-butyl disulphide, k = 1013.46 ± 0.32 [exp(- 185 ± 5 kJ mol-1)(RT)-1]; p-chlorophenyl tert-butyl disulphide, k = 1014.44 ± 0.66 [exp(- 196 ± 9 kJ mol-1)(RT)-1; p-fluorophenyl tert-butyl disulphide, k = 1010.80 ± 0.16 exp(- 144.5 ± 2 kJ mol -1)(RT)-1]; The observed reactivities, within the above temperature range, follow the order p—F 〉 H 〉 p—Cl 〉 p—NO2. A four-centre, cuadrupolar cyclic transition state mechanism is proposed for the formation of the isobutene and aryldisulphane products. The optimized ground-state molecular geometries of the reactants were calculated by using the MINDO/3 procedure.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: gas-phase thermolysis ; N-methyl-N-phenyl-tert-butylsulfenamide ; morpholinyl-tert-butylsulfenamide ; Chemistry ; Theoretical, Physical and Computational Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: N-Methyl-N-phenyl-tert-butylsulfenamide (MPSA) and morpholinyl-tert-butylsulfenamide (MOSA) were thermolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 340-390 °C and pressures of 7-13 Torr, using toluene as carrier gas, at residence times of 0.3-1.3 s. Isobutene was formed in 99% yield through first-order reactions having the following Arrhenius parameters (A,s-1, Ea, kJ mol-1): MPSA, log A  =  12.41 ± 0.02, Ea  =  158.8 ± 0.2; MOSA, log A  =  12.91 ± 0.22, Ea  =  159 ± 3. It is proposed that the elimination of isobutene takes place by unimolecular reaction mechanisms involving polar, four-center cyclic transition states, forming S-unsubstituted thiohydroxylamines as co-products. Thermochemical parameters, estimated by semiempirical AM1 calculations, are reported for the latter and for the parent molecules. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The pyrolyses of cyanomethyl t-butyl sulfide and its oxygen homologue have been studied in a stirred-flow system over the temperature range 490-540°C and pressures between 5 and 14 Torr. In both cases, isobutene is formed as product in over 97% yield. Hydrogen sulfide is obtained in about half the amount of isobutene in the pyrolysis of the sulfide. Hydrogen cyanide is formed in the pyrolysis of the ether. The first-order rate coefficients for the consumption of the reactants followed the Arrhenius equations Cyanomethyl t-butyl sulfide: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ k({\rm s}^{ - 1}) = 10^{12.63 \pm 0.23} \exp (- 201.7 \pm 3.5)\,{\rm kj}/{\rm mol }\,RT $$\end{document} Cyanomethyl t-butyl ether: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ k({\rm s}^{ - 1}) = 10^{11.27 \pm 0.30} \exp (- 186 \pm 5)\,{\rm kj}/{\rm mol }\,RT $$\end{document}A molecular mechanism involving polar four-centered cyclic transition states is proposed for both reactions, with the CN group stabilizing the partial negative charge developed at the S and O atoms.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: N-cyanomethyl-N-ethyl aniline (CEAN) and N-cyanomethyl-N-ethyl-p-anisidine (CEPA) have been thermolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor, in the range of 510-560 °C, pressures of 7-11 torr and residence times of 0.5-0.9 s, using toluene as carrier gas. N-cyanomethyl-N-ethyl-p-nitroaniline (ECNA) was thermolyzed at 640°C and 13% conversion. Ethylene and HCN formed in 43% yield each as products from all three starting materials. Phenyl methanaldimine and p-anisidyl methanaldimine were also products of CEAN and CEPA, respectively. The consumption of CEAN and CEPA showed first-order kinetics for a three-fold increase of reactant inflow and initial conversions of up to 40 percent. The following Arrhenius equations were obtained from the rate coefficients for the production of ethylene: CEAN: k=1015.10±0.74 exp(-238±11 kJ/mol·RT); CEPA: k=1015.61±0.29 exp(-246±4 kJ/mol·RT). The results are explained by means of radical, nonchain thermolysis mechanisms. The thermochemistry of relevant reaction steps has been estimated from thermochemical parameters calculated by using the semiempirical AM1 method. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet: 30: 451-456, 1998
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Allylic phosphine systems were studied as phosphorus-carbon double bond precursors. 1-Phenyl and 1-butyl-1-phospha-1,3-dienes were generated by pyrolysis at 350-460°C of the corresponding diallyl phosphines in a stirred-flow reactor. The unsubstituted phosphadienes generated in this manner dimerized; the formation of [4 + 2] cycloaddition products was confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. 31P NMR data of the 1-phospha-1,3-dienes were obtained.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Dially(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine and allyl(t-butylamino)phenylphosphine were pyrolyzed in a stirred-flow reactor at 340-420°C/9-19 Torr, using toluene as carrier gas. The primary reaction products were propene, 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-phosphabutadiene, and 1-phenyl-2-t-butyliminophosphine. The phosphorus-containing products gave rise to [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition products, respectively. The consumption of these phosphines showed first-order kinetics, with the rate coefficients following the Arrhenius equations: Dially(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine: k(s-1) = 109.00±0.32 exp (- 122 ± 4 kJ/mol RT) Allyl(t-butylamino)phenylphosphine: k(s-1) = 109.04±0.25 exp (-113 ± 3 kJ/mol RT) The results support a six-center cyclic transition-state unimolecular elimination reaction mechanism for both reactants. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1042-7163
    Keywords: Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Diallyltetramethylpiperidinophosphine 1, diallyldiisopropylaminophosphine 2, and diallylmesitylphosphine 3 were pyrolyzed in a stirred flow reactor over the temperature range 400-450°C, using toluene as carrier gas, producing, in all cases, mixtures of phosphorus-containing products. The pyrolysis of 1 produced 1-tetramethylpiperidino-1-phosphabutadiene, in addition to a mixture of phosphines and polyphosphines. Compound 2 produced the azadiphosphole 4, the phosphinine 5, allylphosphine, and diisopropylaminophosphine as major phosphorated products. The pyrolysis of 3 produced a mixture of phosphines and polyphosphines. The complex mixture generated by the three diallylphosphines indicates the formation of free radicals during their pyrolyses. AM1 calculations on the transition state of an expected retroenetype propene elimination reaction showed that, due to the phosphaalkene character of the transition state, the structure of the latter is very rigid and sensitive to steric effects. Steric hindrance of the substituents on the phosphorus atom compels the molecule to distort the half-chair transition structure, causing a rise in the activation energy to values in the range of a homolytic P(SINGLE BOND)C bond dissociation energy. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The pyrolysis of di-tert-butyl sulfide has been investigated in static and stirred-flow systems at subambient pressures. The rate of consumption of the sulfide was measured in some experiments, and the rate of pressure increase was followed in others. The results suggest that the reaction is essentially homogeneous in a seasoned reactor and proceeds through a free radical mechanism. In the initial stages, the decomposition rate follows first-order kinetics, and the rate coefficient in the absence of an inhibitor is given by \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ k_{^u} (\sec ^{ - 1}) = 10^{15.1 \pm 0.6} \exp \left[{\left({ - 229 \pm 8} \right){\rm kJ/mol/RT}} \right] $$\end{document} between 360 and 413°C. The stoichiometry of the uninhibited reaction at 380°C and 50% decomposition is approximately \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$ {\rm t}^{\rm \_} {\rm C}_{\rm 4} {\rm H}_{{\rm 9}^{\rm -}} {\rm S}_{\rm -} {\rm t}_{\rm -} {\rm C}_{\rm 4} {\rm H}_{\rm 9} = 1.72i_ - {\rm C}_{\rm 4} {\rm H}_{\rm 8} + 0.88{\rm H}_{\rm 2} {\rm S} + 0.29i_ - {\rm C}_{\rm 4} {\rm H}_{{\rm 10}} + 0.11t_ - {\rm C}_{\rm 4} {\rm H}_{\rm 9} {\rm SH} $$\end{document} between 360 and 413°C. The stoichiometry of the uninhibited reaction at 380°C and 50% decomposition is approximately.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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