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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 23 (1983), S. 459-464 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The rheological properties of three types of fluids that exhibit large normal stresses are examined and compared. These fluids have a constant or nearly constant viscosity and can be used as model viscoelastic fluids, covering a range of viscosity from 0.1 to 124 Pa.s. One lubricant, Emkarox FC 31-45000, is shown to have the characteristics of a second-order fluid. Series difficulties encountered in measuring the rheological properties of the Separan - corn syrup solutions (Boger fluids) are reported. The Emkarox and solutions of polyacrylamide (Pusher 700) in mixtures of glycerine and water are proposed as better model fluids.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: This second paper of a series continues the examination of the tensile properties of two series of linear low density polyethylene/polypropylene, (LLDPE/PP) blends. The blends were prepared using a twin-screw extruder and cover the whole concentration range, An Instron Universal Tensile Tester was used to measure the tensile properties of the blends between 10 and 70°C, and the temperature and composition dependences of the modulus were examined. A comparison is established between the solid state and melt properties to underline the behavior in the PP rich region. Results of dynamic mechanical experiments and differential scanning calorimetry on the same materials are also given, and the mechanical behavior is discussed in terms of the variation of the system's crystallinity.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The morphology of the dispersed phase in immiscible polymer blends plays an important role in the determination of the final physical properties. This paper considers factors that influence the final state of deformation of the dispersed phase, and in particular, the formation of fibers and lamellae. Blends of polyethylene and nylon-6 were extruded by ribbon extrusion at different draw ratios. Prior to single-screw extrusion the materials were blended in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder, and the size of the dispersed phase was studied as a function of the viscosity ratio. As the blends are extruded into ribbons and drawn through the calender rolls, the morphology of the dispersed phase undergoes drastic transformations. The fiber formation is enhanced by increasing the draw ratio. At high draw ratios, long thin fibers are observed. Some biaxial deformation is obtained for the noncompatibilized systems when the extruded materials enter the calender with the maximum closing pressure applied to the rolls. The same effect is observed for the compatibilized systems with lower values of the viscosity ratio. As a general rule, it has been observed that the final dispersed phase deformation is diminished in interfacially compatibilized systems.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 6 (1986), S. 407-407 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 39 (1993), S. 1421-1430 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of shear thinning and viscoelasticity on the power required for the mixing of viscous liquids using six different helical ribbon agitators has been investigated. Four Newtonian and 12 non-Newtonian fluids prepared using several polymers dissolved in varying concentrations in different solvents cover a wide range of rheological properties. By a careful choice of test media, the specific and combined effects of shear thinning and viscoelasticity on the power requirement have been examined. Simple models are proposed to predict the effective shear rate in the tank from the knowledge of the torque or power number. The effective shear rate predictions compared with the effective shear rate estimated using the scheme of Metzner and Otto (1957) show that they slightly depend on the shear thinning properties. Fluid's elasticity increases appreciably the power requirement, and departures from the generalized Newtonian power curve in the laminar regime are observed at smaller Reynolds numbers for viscoelastic fluids. Bottom wall resistance of the mixing vessel makes a negligible contribution to the power consumption.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 42 (1996), S. 1388-1396 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Bubble instabilities observed in film blowing using four different polyolefins are discussed: high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), and polypropylene (PP). Special attention is given to the effect of the frost line height on the bubble stability, an effect mostly ignored in the literature. A video-camera system was used to record the bubble shape and oscillations. In general, three forms of instabilities and combinations were observed: (1) axisymmetric periodic variations in the bubble diameter; (2) helical motions of the bubble; and (3) variations in the position of the solidification line. The four resins show different stability behaviors. The LDPE has the most stable operating space and the PP is the most unstable one. No correlation was observed between bubble stability and oscillatory shear rheological properties of the resins. Instability is enhanced by increasing take-up ratio, increasing blow-up ratio, and decreasing frost line height. Furthermore, for the LDPE, some operating points were not attainable and multiple steady states were observed. Our results are in a poor agreement with the predictions Cain and Denn's 1988 analysis.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A screening design is used to establish the contribution of various parameters to the roughness of cylindrical extrudates. A dimensionless response variable is proposed to characterize the extrudate roughness, and the effects of ten parameters on this roughness response were examined. Two polyethylenes (one high density and one linear low density) were investigated using a 45 mm single screw extruder. The results show that the main parameters affecting the extrudate roughness are, in order of importance, apparent shear stress at the die wall, die diameter, ratio of die length to diameter, and type of polymer. The other six parameters (the use of an additive, recycling, type of entrance adapter, die material, die temperature, melt temperature) were found to have a non-significant contribution to roughness.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPES) and polypropylene (PP) have been recovered from solutions of varying initial polymer concentration. Melts of these polymers show significant reductions in viscosity and elasticity, and the effects are attributed to changes in the entanglement density of the polymer. Measurements of entanglement densities have been attempted from experimental values of the apparent zero-shear melt viscosity. These indicate that solution treatments in trichlorobenzene at 135°C reduce the entanglement density more effectively in PP than in LLDPE. In all cases the observed effects are reversible by annealing at elevated temperatures. Analytic data point to entanglement changes as the true origin of changes in viscoelastic properties, since solution treatments produce no changes in molecular weights and weight distributions, and the samples tested are free of solvent residues.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) extended to draw ratios in the 20-40 range have been determined and compared with corresponding properties of the polymers containing particulates including rutile, carbon black, iron oxide, and mica. Shrinkage of drawn structures was studied to temperatures near the fusion of the polymer host. The degree of interaction at polymer/additive interfaces was varied by surface coating certain of the solids with standard coupling agents. Solids were found to increase tensile moduli and to decrease shrinkage, particularly at higher exposure temperatures. The magnitude of changes due to the presence of solids was shown to depend on the apparent interaction at contacts between host and additive. In a dispersion-force matrix, like HDPE, benefits were optimized when the particulates were amphoteric or neutral, rather than having pronounced acid or base interaction potentials.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 29 (1989), S. 1265-1272 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Primary normal stress difference data of some 32 different polymer solutions have been examined and correlated to the shear stress by a simple power-law model. The normal stress at constant shear stress is shown to increase with the molecular weight of the polymer, but decreases with the polymer concentration. The method proposed by Abdel-Khalik, et al., for predicting the primary normal stress difference from viscosity data for these polymer solutions is inadequate. The FENE-P dumbbell model is used to obtain master curves combining normal stress and viscosity data as a function of a dimensionless shear rate. It is found that this presents several drawbacks. It predicts shear-thinning effects with a power-law slope of -2/3, which is found to be too restrictive. The model fails to predict shear-thinning effects for dimensionless shear rates λEγ lower than approximately 0.5. It also fails to predict satisfactorily the low shear rate value of the dimensionless combination of viscosity and first normal stress coefficient Ψ1/λE(η - ηs). An empirically modified correlation is proposed. The fit for a series of polyacrylamide (Dow Separan AP-30) solutions is very good. In the case of a series of monodisperse polystyrene solutions, the fit is not as good, as the data show a more pronounced effect of polymer concentration at high shear rates.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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