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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: pseudo IPNs ; NR ; PCU ; conducting polymers ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Recent DC conductivity measurements on iodine-doped full and psuedo IPNs of poly (carbonate-urethane) (PCU) and natural rubber (NR) reveal that these materials possess a modest conductivity. Both such full and pseudo IPNs (with linear NR chains) are single-phased materials if the NR is of sufficiently high molecular weight derived from Brazilian Manihot glaziovii. On iodine doping the electrical conductivity rises eight orders of magnitude of both the full IPN (to ca. 10-5S cm-1) and the pseudo IPN (to ca. 10-4 S cm-1). A simple theory based on the assumption that conduction occurs essentially along the linear NR chains, composing a percolation cluster, in the iodine-doped pseudo IPNs of PCU and NR accounts for the observed electrical conductivity dependence on temperature, iodine molality, and weight fraction of NR. As temperature decreases the DC conductivity falls and the material becomes essentially an insulator. At sufficiently low temperature (ca. 115 K) this trend reverses and the DC conductivity rises by two orders of magnitude with further decreasing temperature up to that of liquid helium. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: pseudo IPNs ; PCU ; CR ; conducting polymer ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of pseudo IPNs of poly(carbonate-urethane) (PCU) and crosslinked polychloroprene (CR) have been synthesized and characterized. The single phase morphology of these novel pseudo IPNs has been confirmed by DSC measurements and electron microscopy. The room temperature electrical conductives of homopolymers and pseudo IPNs have been investigated for both undoped and iodine-doped samples. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 24 (1993), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The trisodium salt of 2-(4-sulphophenylazo)-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid (SPADNS) was studied by Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques. The Raman spectra of SPADNS powder and aqueous solution were investigated and an assignment of the Raman bands was made taking into account its infrared absorpiton spectrum. SPADNS tatomers, o-hydroxyazo and o-quinone hydrazone, are also discussed. Although the assignment is still preliminary owing to the complex structure of the SPADNS molecule, it provides useful information for SERS investigations of SPADNS in aqueous silver sol and on silve film. The results of SERS are compared with those of visible absorption spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and the adsorption configuration of the SPADNS molecule on a silver surface is considered.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 2133-2136 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The phase behavior of polymer blends under simple shear flow has been studied using a custom-designed rheo-optical system consisting of a two-dimensional small-angle light scattering (SALS) device incorporated into a conventional rheometer. Two-dimensional SALS images were gathered for model polymer blend systems with different quiescent phase behavior: polystyrene/polyisobutylene (PS/PIB) that exhibits upper critical solution temperature phase behavior and polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PS/PVME) that shows lower critical solution temperature phase behavior. For the PS/PIB blend, shear-induced phase mixing occurred at a critical shear rate. Below that critical shear rate, the dispersed phase was highly elongated parallel to the flow direction. For PS/PVME blends, a streak scattering pattern was observed even though the sample became optically clear after shearing. We observed, apparently for the first time, the development of a bright-streak pattern from a transient dark-streak pattern for a polymer blend system under shear. Rheo-microscopy studies revealed an intriguing wave pattern that developed coincident with the observation of a streak pattern by SALS. The relationship between the two phenomena has not yet been established.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 837-843 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A variety of polyorganosiloxanes containing dimethyl, diphenyl, and methylphenyl substituents were studied to determine transparency and optical radiation hardness. Siloxanes show superior optical radiation hardness when compared to optical thermoplastics such as PMMA. Transparency is diminished in polymers containing diphenyl units. This is attributed to the inability to remove traces of the crystalline monomer. Methylphenyl polymers are highly transparent. The maximum attainable refractive index in transparent systems is 1.53.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The crystal orientation distribution in injection-molded bars made from several polypropylene compounds has been investigated using pole figure analysis. The fillers used were glass fibers, chalk, and talc, and some compounds contained one filler and others contained glass fibers plus one or both of the others. All compounds showed strong orientation in the skin with the b-axis of the monoclinic crystals lying preferentially normal to the flow direction and in many cases parallel to the normal to the bar face. This normal direction orientation was very strong in compounds containing talc and is probably caused by crystals forming with their (010) planes on the talc platelet faces, which align themselves parallel to the mold face. Strong orientation persists into the interior of the moldings containing talc, whereas in the other compounds, the orientation at intermediate depths is much less pronounced than in the skin. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: A series of amine terminated polypropylene oxide based thermoplastic polyureas with hard segment contents of 30%, 50%, and 70 percent were synthesized via solution polymerization and reaction injection molding (RIM). Amine terminated polypropylene oxide (PPO-NH2) of Mn = 2000 was used as the soft segment and 4,4′-diphenylme-thanediisocyanate (MDI) extended with diethyltoluenediamine (DETDA) as the hard segment. These polyureas are linear, amorphous, and phase separated. Polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and tensile testing. RIM polyureas had significantly lower molecular weights than solution polymerized polyureas, but their mechanical properties did not suffer, RIM polyureas have poorer phase separation than solution polyureas as evidenced by DSC, DMS, and SAXS, especially at high hard segment levels. SAXS shows phase separation levels of up to 100 percent for low hard segment polyureas and down to 10 percent for high hard segment RIM polyurea. DSC found no evidence of a hard segment glass transition, and the evidence from DMS was inconclusive. In addition to polymer characterization, demolding behavior was studied. The 30 percent hard segment was always tough and elastomeric, while the 70 percent hard segment was always very brittle. The 50 percent hard segment showed the greatest variation in properties, ranging from very brittle to very though as mold temperature and in-mold time were increased. Demold brittleness is explained by the presence of low molecular weight DETDA/MDI oligomers on demolding, which continue to react on aging.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1070-5325
    Keywords: Discretization method ; Nonlinear ABS class ; Newton-type method ; Quadratic convergence ; Engineering ; Engineering General
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: In this paper we give a class of algorithms for solving nonlinear algebraic equations using difference approximations of derivatives. The class is a modification of the original ABS class with the advantage of requiring less function evaluations. Special cases include the methods of Brown and Brent and the discretized Newton method, which is formulated in a way requiring fewer function evaluations per iteration.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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