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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: monodisperse particles ; emulsion copolymerization, divinylbenzene ; porous particles ; macroporous structure ; linear polymer, diluent ; crosslinked domains ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Monodisperse porous polymer particles in the size range of 10 μm in diameter were prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization. Linear polymer (polystyrene seed) or a mixture of linear polymer and solvent or nonsolvent were used as inert diluents. The pore diameters of these porous polymer particles were on the order of 1000 Å with pore volumes up to 0.9 mL/g and specific surface areas up to 200 m2/g. The physical features of the porous polymer particles depended on the diluent type and the crosslinker content, as well as the molecular weight of polymer seed particles. By varying the molecular weight of the linear polymer, monodisperse porous polymer particles with different pore size distribution could be synthesized. Polymer seed with a low degree of crosslinking instead of linear polymer could also be used to prepare monodisperse porous polymer particles with smaller pore volume and pore size.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: thymine styrene monomer ; functional styrene monomer ; multifunctional monomer ; photoresist ; photocrosslinking ; photopolymer ; 2π + 2π photocyclization ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 739-744 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Normal freezing of several organic systems exhibiting simple eutectic behavior has been studied experimentally, and the occurrence of constitutional subcooling has been clearly established. This phenomenon, previously observed in systems of metallurgical interest, results in the instability of a planar solid-liquid interface and leads to solute trapping. This trapping mechanism quantitatively explains why eutectic forming systems exhibit solid phase concentration profiles identical to those expected of systems which form solid solutions. The onset of constitutional subcooling can be correlated and reliably predicted by theoretical equations.Although the process of normal freezing with no liquid phase agitation would appear to be well described by a diffusion model, free convection induced by concentration gradients renders a boundary-layer model more appropriate when the liquid density of the solvent exceeds that of the solute and freezing is in an upward direction.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Propene was polymerized over the MgCl2-supported TiCl4/dioctylphthalate catalyst in heptane. Polymer products obtained under different polymerization conditions were separated into isotactic and atactic polypropenes by the extraction of boiling n-heptane. The effects of polymerization time, cocatalyst type, cocatalyst/catalyst ratio, polymerization temperature, and external base/cocatalyst ratio on the isotactic triad of the isotactic portion of polypropene were investigated 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl piperidine (TMPIP), dimethoxy diphenyl silane (DMDPS), and t-butylmethyl ether (TBME) were employed as the external Lewis base. High concentrations of the first two bases caused a decrease in isotactic triads in the isotactic polymer, while TBME showed no significant effects. The difference can be attributed to the different roles these external bases play in polymerization. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: In propene polymerization over the MgCl2-supported TiCl4/dioctylphthalate (DOP) catalyst, the weight- and number-average molecular weights and the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polypropene products and of the isotactic and atactic polymer portions were studied. The average molecular weights and MWD were found to be independent of time. The isotactic polymer had higher molecular weight and broader distribution than the atactic portion by almost an order of magnitude. An increase in temperature and cocatalyst/catalyst ratio resulted in lowering molecular weight due to increasing transfer reaction. Alkyl aluminum was used as a cocatalyst, and the molecular weight did not vary significantly with different alkyl groups. Of the three external bases studied, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine (TMPIP), dimethoxydiphenyl silane (DMDPS), and t-butylmethyl ether (TBME), the addition of a small amount of one of the first two bases caused a substantial increase in both molecular weight and polydispersity of the isotactic polymer. Those increases leveled off quickly with increasing amounts of the external base. On the other hand, both average molecular weights and polydispersity of the atactic polymer decreased with a net increase in the molecular weight of the whole polymer. TBME, however, has no significant effect on either molecular weight or MWD. These effects are discussed in the context of the roles of the external base in propene polymerization. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A film model is presented for the analysis of mass transfer to a rotating hemispherical electrode when sinusoidal alternating current (AC) together with direct current (DC) are flowing across the electrode surface. The concentration of a diffusing ion is separated into two independent components: a constant DC component and a periodic AC component. The DC concentration is obtained by solving the steady-state convective mass transport equation with the perturbation method. The periodic AC concentration distribution is analyzed by the solution to the one-dimensional transient diffusion equation based on the concept of Nernst diffusion layer. The limiting AC current densities corresponding to a zero surface concentration of a reactive ion are investigated for various DC current densities and AC frequencies. The resulting periodic concentration overpotential wave and its phase shift with respect to the applied AC are examined. A comparison with a previous rigorous model indicates that the film model is a good approximation to the mass transfer calculation in the regimes of a dimensionless AC frequency K = (ω/Ω)Sc1/3 greater than 2 and less than 0.01.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 31 (1985), S. 1372-1380 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A theoretical and experimental investigation is presented for mass transfer to a rotating hemispherical electrode when direct current (DC) superimposed with symmetrical triangular- or square-wave alternating current (AC) is used for electrolysis. A film model is used for the analysis of AC concentration components. The limiting AC current density corresponding to a zero instantaneous surface concentration and the phase shift between the applied AC and the periodic potential changes are calculated and compared to the experimental studies. The experimental data agreed with the theoretical prediction to within ±8% in the regime of a dimensionless AC frequency K = (ω/Ω)Sc1/3 greater than 1 and less than 180. The mass transfer behavior with the triangular and square waves is further compared to that of the sinusoidal current. It is found that for a given AC frequency and rotational speed, the limiting AC current density on the electrode decreases in the order of traingular-wave AC 〉 sinusoidal AC 〉 square-wave AC.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: In propylene polymerization over TiCl4/MgCl2/ethyl benzoate (EB)/triethyl aluminum (TEA) catalysts, experimental evidence strongly suggests that active sites have differing propagation and termination rate constants. Although the chemical structure of these sites may be quite similar, their location on the support may affect their polymerization activity, and this results in a distribution of the propagation and deactivation rate constants. To model this type of system, we developed a kinetic model accounting for multiple active sites. The model was fitted to simulated polymerization data to investigate the validity of mathematical approximations used in the derivation of the model equation. Using experimental data, the adequacy of the model was tested, and the statistical inference of parameter estimation was also discussed. The effects of experimental operating variables and additives on the kinetic model parameters revealed an important insight into the fundamentals of this system. The optimum productivity commonly observed has been shown to be the result of differing rates of increase of both propagation and termination rates with Al/Ti ratio and temperature. Kinetic evidence also suggests that the additive selectively poisons atactic-specific sites.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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