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  • 1
    ISSN: 0736-0266
    Keywords: Continuous passive motion ; Nutritional pathways ; Transsynovial transport ; Meniscus ; Life and Medical Sciences
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Thirteen freshly killed immature rabbits were used to study the effect of continuous passive motion (CPM) on regional nutritional pathways of the medial and lateral menisci and the transport of a solute from synovial fluid to the patellar tendon. A bolus of 35SO4 was injected into each knee joint cavity. The right knee underwent CPM for 1 h, whereas the left knee was immobilized (rest extremity). Both knees were then rapidly resected and immediately frozen. The medial and lateral menisci were removed and sectioned into anterior, middle, and posterior thirds for Group 1 animals; in Group 2 animals a portion of patellar tendon was harvested. Radioactivity as counts per minute per milligram of tissue was counted in a scintillation counter. The posterior portion of the lateral meniscus in the rest extremity had significantly higher uptake than the extremity that underwent CPM (p 〈 0.001). In the extremity at rest, the posterior third of the lateral meniscus had a significantly higher uptake than that of the middle third (p = 0.04). In Group 2 rabbits, the patellar tendon of the knee undergoing CPM had significantly higher uptake as compared with the patellar tendon of the knee at rest (p = 0.02). These results indicate that diffusion from synovial fluid to meniscal cells is an important mechanism of transport for low-molecular-weight nutrients such as sulfate; CPM does not facilitate this mechanism. However, even with a decreased amount of 35SO4 left in the CPM-treated joint, the amount taken up by these menisci was still roughly the same as that in the rested knee that had a higher concentration of 35SO4 available in the synovial cavity. Regional differences are small for the 1-h period examined in this study. Transarticular transport of sulfate from the joint space to an extraarticular tissue (patellar tendo) is facilitated by convective flow induced by CPM.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: cell walls ; protease ; β-glucanase ; lysis ; yeast ; antifungal drugs ; glucan ; mannoprotein ; S. cerevisiae ; C. albicans ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The rate of formation of spheroplasts of yeast can be used as an assay to study the structural integrity of cell walls. Lysis can be measured spectrophotometrically in hypotonic solution in the presence of Zymolyase, a mixture of cell wall-digesting enzymes. The optical density of the cell suspension decreases as the cells lyse. We optimized this assay with respect to enzyme concentration, temperature, pH, and growth conditions for several strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The level of variability (standard deviation) was 1-5% between trials where the replications were performed on the same culture using enzyme prepared from the same lot, and 5-15% for different cultures of the same strain. This assay can quantitate differences in cell wall structure (1) between exponentially growing and stationary phase cells, (2) among different S. cerevisiae strains, (3) between S. cerevisiae and Candida albicans, (4) between parental and mutated lines, and (5) between drug- or chemically-treated cells and controls. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Vibrational assignments for the skeletal modes of some complexes containing CH3SX2+ and (CH3)2SX+ (X = Cl, Br) have been made on the basis of their solid-state Raman spectra and compared with any previous data. The stabilities of the parent CH3SX3 and (CH3)2SX2 compounds are discussed; two isomers of (CH3)2SBr2 were obtained under varying reaction conditions and assigned as ionic [(CH3)2SBr+Br-] and charge-transfer [(CH3)2S → Br2] forms. The transition of the ionic (metastable) form to the more stable charge-transfer form was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry. High-frequency shifts occur in some fundamental modes of (CH3)2SBr+Br- when Br- is replaced with a polyatomic anion, analogous to those seen in halophosphonium complexes; this is rationalized in terms of anion-cation interaction.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0377-0486
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Vibrational assignments for the skeletal modes of the solid-state species (CH3)nPX5-n (X = Cl, Br; 1 ≤ n ≤ 3) have been made on the basis of their Raman Spectra. The results are consistent with ionic formulations (CH3)nPX4-n +X- and are compared with any previously available data. Two modifications of (CH3)2PCl2 +Cl- have been observed for the first time and their relative stabilities investigated. Raman spectra of the mixed halogen cationic compounds CH3PCl2Br+X-, CH3PClBr2 +X- and (CH3)2PClBr +X- are also reported and Lewis acid complexes of all the phosphonium cations show characteristic high-frequency shifts in the P—X stretching modes [relative to those in (CH3) RPX4-n +X-] which are rationalized in terms of anion-cation interactions. CH3PCl4 has been observed in a molecular form and the transition to the ionic modification (at ca 160 K) has been monitored by variable temperature Raman spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 32 (1986), S. 877-878 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Dense films of poly[(4-ethylphenoxy)(phenoxy)phosphazene] (PEPP), a potentially attractive ion-exchange membrane material, were crosslinked to varying degrees using UV light and a photoinitiator. This polymer contained two kinds of substituents: phenoxy groups to be used for possible functionalization (e.g., sulfonation) and ethylphenoxy side-chains for photocrosslinking, where hydrogens at the benzylic carbons could be abstracted by a photoinitiator-leaving macroradicals that after recombination formed covalent bonds. The polyphosphazene polymer was synthesized, mixed with a photoinitiator, shaped into a thin film by solvent casting, and irradiated with UV light for a specified period of time. Benzophenone (BP), was selected as the photoinitiator because it was miscible with poly-phosphazene, had the highest rate of hydrogen abstraction, and absorbed UV light of 365 nm wavelength. The half-life of benzophenone in 50 μm-thick irradiated films was determined to be 20 min. When the BP-PEPP molar ratio was increased from 0 to 0.5, the glass transition temperature increased after irradiation from -8.8 to 53.5°C. At the same time, the equilibrium swelling in dimethylacetamide, at 25°C, decreased from infinity to 0.31. Tensile strength tests of the crosslinked films revealed a nonlinear dependence on BP-PEPP molar ratio. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A two-dimensional, electrokinetic transport model that incorporates ionic hydration, orientation of solvent molecules by an applied electric field, and solvent dipole-dipole interactions is developed. The model is used to simulate equilibrium and transport experiments for perfluorosulfonic acid membranes containing aqueous alkali metal sulfate solutions. The membrane is modeled as an array of cylindrical pores. Solution of the mathematical model requires that the membrane porosity, water partition coefficient, coion partition coefficient, water diffusion coefficients, and coion and counterion diffusion coefficients be known. Membrane coion and counterion diffusion coefficients were determined from free solution equivalent conductance data. All other parameters were determined experimentally for a Nafion (of E. I. du Pont de Nemours Inc.) cation-exchange membrane and five 0.1 M alkali metal sulfate solutions. Experimental radiotracer data for coion absorption as well as for coion and water transport are compared with theoretical predictions to test the accuracy of the model.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: monoclonal antibody ; A431 ; EGF receptor ; chromosomal location ; internalization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: A monoclonal antibody of the IgG class, EGFR1, has been isolated using cells of the epidermoid carcinoma line A431 as immunogen. The A431 antigen recognized by EGFR1 has an apparent molecular weight of approximately 175,000, is a cell-surface molecule which can be specifically cross-linked to EGF, exhibits an EGF-stimulated protein kinase activity, binds to EGFR1 in a number of human cell lines to a degree which parallels EGF binding, and shows EGF-dependent internalization in A431 cells and human fibroblasts. We therefore conclude that EGFR1 is directed against an antigenic site on the human EGF receptor. EGFR1 is not mitogenic for human fibroblasts and does not inhibit EGF binding under a variety of assay conditions. The characterization of EGFR1 has allowed the unambiguous assignment of the structural gene for the human EGF receptor to chromosome 7. Preliminary results suggest that a convenient method for isolating a range of anti-EGF receptor monoclonal antibodies can be developed, based on a hybridoma supernatant screening assay in which positive supernatants bind selectively to a human-mouse cell hybrid containing human chromosome 7.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: polyamide chains in solution, thermal flexibility of ; intrinsic viscosity of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) and poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) of equal molecular weights, temperature dependence of ; flexibility mechanism for polyamide chains in solution ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Intrinsic viscosities of poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA) and poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) samples of the same molecular weight are determined in 90%, 96% and 100% sulfuric acid at temperatures from 0 to 130°C. Conditions are established under which the degree of coiling of PPTA molecule is close to that for PMIA. Experimental data are compared with the results of theoretical calculations of the Kuhn segment length. In the light of this comparison, some quantitative characteristics of the deformational flexibility mechanism for aromatic polyamide chains and the hindrance to intramolecular rotation are discussed. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0959-8103
    Keywords: Polydiacetylene ; thermal analysis ; 13C NMR ; chromism ; fluorescence ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Polydiacetylene (2) of varying molecular weight has been formed by UV- or 60Co γ-irradiation of the diacetylene PhCH2CO2(CH2)9-C≡C—C≡C(CH2)9O2CCH2Ph (3), with conversion of 30-〉95%. Samples of (2) with differing physical properties have been studied, in the bulk phase, by CPMAS 13C NMR and VIS/UV spectroscopy and by DSC; complementary spectroscopic data on solutions of (2), including fluorescence studies, are also reported. Spectroscopic studies support the presence of an extended planar conjugated backbone in ‘as polymerised’ blue-black samples of (2), from which various forms of red-coloured polymer, with shorter conjugation lengths, can be obtained. Studies of the thermal behaviour indicate the existence of several differing thermal transitions for these materials and the results are discussed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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