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  • 1
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies by Stephens and McNulty and Strecker and Stephens have demonstrated that foil barriers placed between the mesonephros and lateral plate at stages 12 to 15 inhibited limb development, but foil barriers placed between the neural tube and somites at stages 11 to 12 resulted in limbs with normal skeletal patterns. It was concluded that some influence present in the paraxial region of the embryo at stages 11 to 15 is necessary for normal limb development. The present study was undertaken to localize that influence more precisely. Foil barriers were placed in the lateral edge of the somites or segmental plate of stage 10 to 15 chick embryos. Barriers placed into stage 13 to 15 embryos resulted in chicks with normal limbs, but barriers placed into stage 10 to 11 embryos resulted in chicks with defective limbs. Barriers inserted just lateral to Hensen's node at stages 6 to 8 resulted in embryos with defective or absent wings. We also grafted stage 4 to 9 presumptive limb territories with and without Hensen's node. Explants without Hensen's node formed limb-like structures in 1% of the cases. Explants with Hensen's node formed limb-like structures in 27% of the cases. When barriers were implanted and a node was placed on the lateral side of the barrier, limbs formed in 40% of the cases. These data suggest a medial to lateral progression of some as yet unknown morphogenetic influence necessary for normal limb development and we hypothesized that the influence may initially emanate from Hensen's node.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The present study was undertaken to determine whether a visible Wolffian ridge, distinct from the lateral fold, can be identified in chick embryos. Ectoderm thickness was measured in stage 11-17 chick embryos. There was a general trend, from thin ectoderm in the midline, to an ectodermal thickening over the somites, intermediate mesoderm, and lateral plate. Other embryos were cut from the yolk, pinned out, and photographed. The lateral fold was then eliminated, and the embryo was rephotographed. The photographs reveal a definite opaic zone, distinct from the lateral fold, in stage 11-18 chick embryos. Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between the opacity of this cellular band and the limb-forming potential of grafted wing, flank, and leg regions (see Stephens et al., '89). At stages 11-14, the wing, flank, and leg exhibit a uniform opacity, and a uniform capacity for limb formation when grafted to a host celom. From stage 15 to stage 18, the opacity in the flank diminishes, and its limb-forming capability disappears. This study demonstrates the presence of an opaic zone, which we have called the limb-forming zone (LFZ) along the lateral side of early chick embryos, which is independent of the lateral fold, is not as extensive as the lateral plate, and is not simply associated with ectodermal thickening, but which is directly correlated with limb-forming potential in the lateral plate. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 39 (1993), S. 569-580 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A modified sieve (that is, T-By) tray uses a system of weirs and risers to approximate liquid plug flow over a cross-flow, circular-section tray. Vapor-liquid contact is improved using a system of curtain-pattern vapor holes and intermediate weirs to form cells across the tray that promote liquid mixing into discrete, wellmixed pools and stabilize froth. A theoretical model is used to analyze experimental data, guide tray design, and suggest new strategies for improving performance. These results indicate that tray efficiencies and stabilities can be increased without capacity losses. Pressure drop can also be manipulated to enhance performance.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: mRNA stability ; hairpins ; gene expression control ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An expression system has been developed for the introduction of DNA cassettes into the region between the transcription and translation start sites of a gene of interest. This cassette system was used to engineer mRNA stability through the introduction of hairpins at the 5′ end. A synthetic DNA cassette was designed so that the resulting mRNA hairpin would be positioned one nucleotide from the 5′ mRNA end. The hairpin-containing mRNA exhibited a half-life 3 times that of the mRNA with no hairpin, resulting in increases in both mRNA and protein levels. These results indicate that it is possible to engineer mRNA stability as an additional means of controlling gene expression. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 557-580, 1997
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 29 (1989), S. 69-76 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Mechanical properties, deformation modes under both uniaxial tension and compression, low temperature mechanical relaxation behavior, and resistance to fracture under dynamic loading have been investigated for a medium impact grade of polystyrene, Shear yielding is the dominant mode of plastic deformation in compression while matrix crazing, together with some tearing and cavitation of the rubber phase, occurs in tension. The craze microstructure, as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is typical of that noted in polystyrene, with sharp craze-bulk interfaces and a characteristic midrib section. The presence of a third phase, possibly a processing aid, is evident in the TEM scans and in the dynamic mechanical data. The present data, together with the data obtained on polystyrene and on high impact polystyrene, are used to show the strong influence of rubber content on various mechanical properties, such as the tensile craze yielding stress, ductility, compression yield strength, degree of strain softening, and fatigue durability.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1058-8388
    Keywords: Limbs ; Development ; Field ; Chick ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Harrison (1918: J. Exp. Zool. 25: 413-461) described a developmental field as an “equipotential self-differentiating system.” The present study was undertaken to address the question: To what extent can the pre-limb territory of a chick embryo be considered a developmental field? To what extent is the chick pre-limb territory an equipotential self-differentiating system? Two sets of experiments were undertaken to address these questions: (1) Whole and half limb territories were explanted to the celoma of host embryos, and (2) portions of the wing territories were extirpated. The wing exhibited the quality of self-differentiation after stage 12, in that the isolated wing territory, grafted to a host celom, could form limbs beginning at stage 12 (however, complete wings formed only from wing territories of stage 16 and older). On the other hand, the chick wing territory did not appear to exhibit equipotentiality. No posterior half limb graft formed normal limbs, and only in two exceptional cases did anterior half limb grafts form limbs. If part or all of the wing territory was removed from chick embryos, normal limbs formed in less than 15% of the cases after stage 15, in about 30% of the cases at stages 13 and 14, but in over half the cases at stages 10-12. Wound healing and reintiation of limb potential may be responsible for the higher incidence of limb formation at the younger ages. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: mRNA stability ; plasmid copy number ; gene expression ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of mRNA stability and plasmid copy number on gene expression in Escherichia coli were evaluated by constructing multicopy (pMB1-based) and low-copy (F-based) plasmids containing an arabinose-inducible promoter system, the lacZ reporter gene, and mRNA-stabilizing 5′ hairpin structures. Product formation and cell growth were evaluated under a number of inducer concentrations. The introduction of a 5′ hairpin into the untranslated region of the mRNA resulted in significantly higher gene expression from the multicopy plasmids at low inducer concentrations and increased gene expression from the low-copy plasmids across all inducer concentrations investigated. With high inducer concentrations, expression from high-copy plasmids significantly slowed cell growth, whereas expression from the low-copy plasmids had little effect on growth rate. At inducer concentrations between 1 × 10-4 and 4 × 10-4%, the productivity of low-copy plasmids containing the 5′-hairpin was equal to or greater than that from multicopy plasmids. Together, these two gene expression strategies may find important use in metabolic engineering and heterologous gene expression. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 59:666-672, 1998.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0449-2986
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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