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    Publication Date: 2012-09-22
    Description: Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive microarray profiling of approximately 900 neuroanatomically precise subdivisions in two individuals. Transcriptional regulation varies enormously by anatomical location, with different regions and their constituent cell types displaying robust molecular signatures that are highly conserved between individuals. Analysis of differential gene expression and gene co-expression relationships demonstrates that brain-wide variation strongly reflects the distributions of major cell classes such as neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Local neighbourhood relationships between fine anatomical subdivisions are associated with discrete neuronal subtypes and genes involved with synaptic transmission. The neocortex displays a relatively homogeneous transcriptional pattern, but with distinct features associated selectively with primary sensorimotor cortices and with enriched frontal lobe expression. Notably, the spatial topography of the neocortex is strongly reflected in its molecular topography-the closer two cortical regions, the more similar their transcriptomes. This freely accessible online data resource forms a high-resolution transcriptional baseline for neurogenetic studies of normal and abnormal human brain function.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4243026/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4243026/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hawrylycz, Michael J -- Lein, Ed S -- Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L -- Shen, Elaine H -- Ng, Lydia -- Miller, Jeremy A -- van de Lagemaat, Louie N -- Smith, Kimberly A -- Ebbert, Amanda -- Riley, Zackery L -- Abajian, Chris -- Beckmann, Christian F -- Bernard, Amy -- Bertagnolli, Darren -- Boe, Andrew F -- Cartagena, Preston M -- Chakravarty, M Mallar -- Chapin, Mike -- Chong, Jimmy -- Dalley, Rachel A -- Daly, Barry David -- Dang, Chinh -- Datta, Suvro -- Dee, Nick -- Dolbeare, Tim A -- Faber, Vance -- Feng, David -- Fowler, David R -- Goldy, Jeff -- Gregor, Benjamin W -- Haradon, Zeb -- Haynor, David R -- Hohmann, John G -- Horvath, Steve -- Howard, Robert E -- Jeromin, Andreas -- Jochim, Jayson M -- Kinnunen, Marty -- Lau, Christopher -- Lazarz, Evan T -- Lee, Changkyu -- Lemon, Tracy A -- Li, Ling -- Li, Yang -- Morris, John A -- Overly, Caroline C -- Parker, Patrick D -- Parry, Sheana E -- Reding, Melissa -- Royall, Joshua J -- Schulkin, Jay -- Sequeira, Pedro Adolfo -- Slaughterbeck, Clifford R -- Smith, Simon C -- Sodt, Andy J -- Sunkin, Susan M -- Swanson, Beryl E -- Vawter, Marquis P -- Williams, Derric -- Wohnoutka, Paul -- Zielke, H Ronald -- Geschwind, Daniel H -- Hof, Patrick R -- Smith, Stephen M -- Koch, Christof -- Grant, Seth G N -- Jones, Allan R -- 066717/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077155/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1C76HF15069-01-00/PHS HHS/ -- 1C76HF19619-01-00/PHS HHS/ -- G0700399/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0802238/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Sep 20;489(7416):391-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11405.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA. mikeh@alleninstitute.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22996553" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Anatomy, Artistic ; Animals ; *Atlases as Topic ; Brain/*anatomy & histology/cytology/*metabolism ; Calbindins ; Databases, Genetic ; Dopamine/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Health ; Hippocampus/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization ; Internet ; Macaca mulatta/anatomy & histology/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Neocortex/anatomy & histology/cytology/metabolism ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Post-Synaptic Density/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/genetics ; S100 Calcium Binding Protein G/genetics ; Species Specificity ; Transcriptome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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