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  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; PATHWAYS ; MUTATIONS ; sensitivity ; FUTURE ; THERAPIES
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Multiple investigational drugs are currently explored in cancer patient populations defined by specific biomarkers. This demands a new process of patient selection for clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting January 1, 2012, preemptive biomarker profiling was offered at the West German Cancer Center to all patients with advanced non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) or colorectal cancer (CRC), who met generic study inclusion criteria. Tumour specimens were subjected to prespecified profiling algorithms to detect 'actionable biomarkers' by amplicon sequencing, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. The clinical course was closely monitored to offer trial participation whenever applicable. RESULTS: Within 12 months, 267 patients (188 NSCLC, 79 CRC) were profiled. Estimated additional cost for biomarker profiling was 219615.51 EUR excluding histopathology workup and administration. The most prevalent biomarkers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma were KRAS mutations (29%), loss of PTEN expression (18%), EGFR mutations (9%), HER2 amplification (5%) and BRAF mutations (3%), while the prevalence of ALK translocations and PIK3CA mutations was extremely low. In pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma FGFR1 amplifications were found in 15%, PTEN expression was lost in 20% and DDR2 was mutated in a single case. KRAS mutations (41%) predominated in CRC, followed by loss of PTEN expression (16%), PIK3CA (5%) and BRAF (5%) mutations. So far 13 patients (5%) have entered biomarker-stratified clinical trials. Therapeutic decisions for approved drugs were guided in another 45 patients (17%). CONCLUSION: Preemptive biomarker profiling can be implemented into the diagnostic algorithm of a large Comprehensive Cancer Center. Substantial investments in diagnostics and administration are required.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23876834
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; ACTIVATION ; mechanisms ; CELL-DEATH ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; MUTATIONS ; PET ; PHASE-II TRIAL ; IMATINIB MESYLATE ; 2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE
    Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is frequently used for visualizing gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), which are highly glucose-avid tumors. Dramatic metabolic responses following imatinib treatment indicate a high, KIT-dependent glucose turnover which has been particularly helpful for predicting tumor response to imatinib. The glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) inhibits glucose metabolism in cancer cells that depend on aerobic glycolysis for ATP production. We show that 2DG inhibits proliferation in both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST cell lines at levels that can be achieved clinically. KIT-negative GIST48B have 3-14-fold higher IC50 levels than KIT-positive GIST cells indicating that oncogenic KIT may sensitize cells to 2DG. GIST sensitivity to 2DG is increased in low-glucose media (110mg/dl). 2DG leads to dose- and glucose dependent inhibition of KIT glycosylation with resultant reduction of membrane-bound KIT, inhibition of KIT-phosphorylation and inactivation of KIT-dependent signaling intermediates. In contrast to imatinib, 2DG caused ER-stress and elicited the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mannose but not pyruvate rescued GIST cells from 2DG-induced growth arrest, suggesting that loss of KIT integrity is the predominant effect of 2DG in GIST. Additive anti-tumoral effects were seen with imatinib and BH3-mimetics. Our data provide the first evidence that modulation of the glucose-metabolism by 2DG may have a disease-specific effect and may be therapeutically useful in GIST.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25781619
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 54 (1992), S. 544-551 
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 07.62.+s ; 85.50.Ly
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The absorption of radiation with pyroelectric detectors and the thermal properties of these devices are discussed using a simple physical picture — the physics of waves. Considered are the reflection, transmission and interference of electromagnetic and of thermal waves within the pyroelectric sensor arrangement. In particular, thin metal films, quarter wavelength structures, and anti-reflection coatings on metal films as absorber structures are discussed. The effect of the substrate on the pyroelectric response is treated and new figures of merit are introduced for the comparison of sensor materials which are mounted on a heat sink.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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