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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.60 ; 42.55
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract To improve the gain in the Orsay storage ring Free Electron Laser (FEL) experiment, the 17 period permanent magnet undulator has been modified to form an optical klystron (OK). We report the measurement of spontaneous emission and the effects on it of energy spread and angular spread. Gain and laser induced bunch lengthening measurements with the OK are also reported and are in very good agreement with the FEL classical theory. The spontaneous emission spectrum which is easy to measure with good signal to noise ratio, turns out to be a very good diagnostic tool forenergy spread and angular spread measurements on storage rings. The factor of four increase in the small gain obtained by converting the undulator NOEL into an OK was the critical factor in the recent operation of the ACO storage ring laser above threshold.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6857
    Keywords: evolution ; transposable element ; hobo ; Drosophila melanogaster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Hobo elements are a family of transposable elements found inDrosophila melanogaster and its three sibling species:D. simulans, D. mauritiana andD. sechellia. Studies inD. melanogaster have shown thathobo may be mobilized, and that the genetic effects of such mobilizations included the general features of hybrid dysgenesis: mutations, chromosomal rearrangements and gonadal dysgenis in F1 individuals. At the evolutionary level somehobo-hybridizing sequences have also been found in the other members of themelanogaster subgroup and in many members of the relatedmontium subgroup. Surveys of older collected strains ofD. melanogaster suggest that completehobo elements were absent prior to 50 years ago and that they have recently been introduced into this species by horizontal transfer. In this paper we review our findings and those of others, in order to precisely describe the geographical distribution and the evolutionary history ofhobo in theD. melanogaster complex. Studies of the DNA sequences reveal a different level of divergence between the groupD. melanogaster, D. simulans andD. mauritiana and the fourth speciesD. sechellia. The hypothesis of multiple transfers in the recent past into theD. melanogaster complex from a common outside source is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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