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  • 81.40  (1)
  • Atmospheric composition and structure (transmission and scattering of radiation)  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 42.55.Gp ; 61.80 ; 81.40
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Data on the ablation of Poly(Methyl MetAcylate) (PMMA) and Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl MetAcylate) (PHEMA) with 0%, 1% and 20% of Ethylene Glycol DiMethAcrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking monomer by 193, 222 and 308 nm laser radiation are presented. Direct photoetching of PMMA at 308 nm is demonstrated for laser fluences ranging from 2 to 18 J/cm2. The ablation rate of PHEMA is lower than the corresponding to PMMA and decreases when the amount of EGDMA increases. The determination of the absorbed energy density required to initiate significant ablation suggests that the photoetching mechanism is similar for all the polymers studied and is a function of the irradiation wavelength. The Beer-Lambert law, the Srinivasan, Smrtic and Babu (SSB) theory and the kinetic model of the moving interface are used to analyze the experimental results. It is shown that only the moving interface theory fits well the etch rate for all the selected polymers at the three radiation wavelengths.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0992-7689
    Keywords: Atmospheric composition and structure (transmission and scattering of radiation) ; Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (radiative process)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Since the discovery of the ozone depletion in Antarctic and the globally declining trend of stratospheric ozone concentration, public and scientific concern has been raised in the last decades. A very important consequence of this fact is the increased broadband and spectral UV radiation in the environment and the biological effects and heath risks that may take place in the near future. The absence of widespread measurements of this radiometric flux has lead to the development and use of alternative estimation procedures such as the parametric approaches. Parametric models compute the radiant energy using available atmospheric parameters. Some parametric models compute the global solar irradiance at surface level by addition of its direct beam and diffuse components. In the present work, we have developed a comparison between two cloudless sky parametrization schemes. Both methods provide an estimation of the solar spectral irradiance that can be integrated spectrally within the limits of interest. For this test we have used data recorded in a radiometric station located at Granada (37.180°N, 3.580°W, 660 m a.m.s.l.), an inland location. The database includes hourly values of the relevant variables covering the years 1994/95. The performance of the models has been tested in relation to their predictive capability of global solar irradiance in the UV range (290/385 nm). After our study, it appears that information concerning the aerosol radiative effects is fundamental in order to obtain a good estimation. The original version of SPCTRAL2 provides estimates of the experimental values with negligible mean bias deviation. This suggests not only the appropriateness of the model but also the convenience of the aerosol features fixed in it to Granada conditions. SMARTS2 model offers increased flexibility concerning the selection of different aerosol models included in the code and provides the best results when the selected models are those considered as urban. Although SMARTS2 provide slightly worse results, both models give estimates of solar ultraviolet irradiance with mean bias deviation below 5%, and root mean square deviation close to experimental errors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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