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    Abstract: We examined the high precision deposition of toner and polymer microparticles with a typical size of similar to 10 mu m on electrode arrays with electrodes of 100 mu m and below using custom-made microelectronic chips. Selective desorption of redundant particles was employed to obtain a given particle pattern from preadsorbed particle layers. Microparticle desorption was regulated by dielectrophoretic attracting forces generated by individual pixel electrodes, tangential detaching forces of an air flow, and adhesion forces on the microchip surface. A theoretical consideration of the acting forces showed that without pixel voltage, the tangential force applied for particle detachment exceeded the particle adhesion force. When the pixel voltage was switched on, however, the sum of attracting forces was larger than the tangential detaching force, which was crucial for desorption efficiency. In our experiments, appropriately large dielectrophoretic forces were achieved by applying high voltages of up to 100 V on the pixel electrodes. In addition, electrode geometries on the chip's surface as well as particle size influenced the desorption quality. We further demonstrated the compatibility of this procedure to complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip technology, which should allow for an easy technical implementation with respect to high-resolution microparticle deposition. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18377044
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELL ; Germany ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; MEMORY ; ACID ; PARTICLES ; PATTERNS ; ARRAYS ; SURFACE ; PEPTIDES ; CHEMISTRY ; PATTERN ; SCIENCE ; AREA ; CMOS chip ; MICROCHIP ; Microparticle deposition ; Solid-phase peptide synthesis
    Abstract: We built high voltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips that generate electrical fields on their surface, such that electrically charged microparticles (diameter 10-20 mu m on average) can be addressed on distinct pixel electrodes according to arbitrary field patterns. Each pixel contains a memory cell in canonical low-voltage CMOS-technology controlling a high voltage (30-100V) potential area on the top metal layer. Particle transfer with minimal contaminations in less than 10 s for a complete chip was observed for pixels of 100 mu m x 100 mu m down to 65 mu m x 65 mu m. This allows a new way to create surface modifications on top of CMOS chips without need for additional masks or stamps. Using suitable particles, a chemically modified chip surface, and compatible chemistry, this method can be utilized for self-aligned high-density biopolymer arrays, e.g., peptide arrays. Transfer of microparticles loaded with amino acids for combinatorial peptide synthesis is demonstrated. Successful synthesis of different peptides (octamers) was proven by immunostaining. Based on results obtained by a chip containing pixel areas of different characteristics, a chip for biological applications with 16,384 pixels (10,000 pixel/cm(2)) was built. Good homogeneity of peptide synthesis over the chip area was verified by immunostaining. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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