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  • ACTIVATION  (5)
  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; INHIBITION ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DEATH ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; DRUG ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODY ; TUMORS ; RELEASE ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; MECHANISM ; FAMILY ; DOMAIN ; INDUCTION ; mechanisms ; DOWN-REGULATION ; CYTOCHROME-C ; MITOCHONDRIA ; UNITED-STATES ; RECEPTORS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; TUMOR CELLS ; Bcl-2 ; HUMAN HEPATOCYTES ; TRAIL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; CD95 ; CASPASE ; INHIBITORS ; signaling ; FAMILIES ; SOLID TUMORS ; CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 ; TUMOR-CELL ; death receptor ; downregulation ; function ; caspases ; DRUGS ; cyclooxygenase ; RELEVANCE ; NECROSIS ; MCL-1 ; CELECOXIB-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; PRIMARY HUMAN HEPATOCYTES
    Abstract: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 elicits chemopreventive and therapeutic effects in solid tumors that are coupled with the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells. We investigated the mechanisms by which COX-2 inhibition induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. COX-2 inhibition triggered expression of the CD95, tumor necrosis factor (TNIF)-R, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R1 and TRAIL-R2 death receptors. Addition of the respective specific ligands further increased apoptosis, indicating that COX-2 inhibition induced the expression of functional death receptors. Overexpression of a dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain mutant reduced COX-2 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, our findings showed a link between COX-2 inhibition and the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. COX-2 inhibition led to a rapid down-regulation of myeloid cc leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and cytochrome c release front mitochondria. Consequently, overexpression of Mcl-1 led to inhibition of COX-2 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking endogenous Mcl-1 function using a small - interfering RNA approach enhanced COX-2 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. It is of clinical importance that celecoxib acted synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs in the induction of apoptosis in HCC cells. The clinical relevance of these results is further substantiated by the finding that COX-2 inhibitors did not sensitize primary human hepatocytes toward chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition engages different apoptosis pathways in HCC cells stimulating death receptor signaling, activation of caspases, and apoptosis originating from mitochondria
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16849551
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; NETWORK ; SUPPORT ; DEATH ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; liver ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; murine ; CARCINOGENESIS ; INDUCTION ; SIGNAL ; TARGET ; MOUSE ; hepatocarcinogenesis ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; PROGRESSION ; CELL-DEATH ; CELL-LINE ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; RAGE ; MOUSE MODEL ; KAPPA-B ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; expression profiling ; inflammation ; signaling ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; cell death ; CANCER PROGRESSION ; USA ; GROWTH-CONTROL ; SUPPRESSOR-CELLS ; nuclear factor kappa B ; COEXPRESSION ; COMPENSATORY PROLIFERATION
    Abstract: The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappa B) signaling pathway has been recently shown to participate in inflammation-induced cancer progression. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the NF-kappa B-dependent gene regulatory network in the well-established Mdr2 knockout mouse model of inflammation-associated liver carcinogenesis. Expression profiling of NF-kappa B-deficient and NF-kappa B-proficient hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) revealed a comprehensive list of known and novel putative NF-kappa B target genes, including S100a8 and S100a9. We detected increased co-expression of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins in mouse HCC cells, in human HCC tissue, and in the HCC cell line Hep3B on ectopic RelA expression. Finally, we found a synergistic function for S100A8 and S100A9 in Hep3B cells resulting in a significant induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accompanied by enhanced cell survival. Conclusion: We identified S100A8 and S100A9 as novel NF-kappa B target genes in HCC cells during inflammation-associated liver carcinogenesis and provide experimental evidence that increased co-expression of both proteins supports malignant progression by activation of ROS-dependent signaling pathways and protection from cell death. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;50: 1251-1262.)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19670424
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  • 3
  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; human ; INHIBITION ; VITRO ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; liver ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; TISSUE ; LINES ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; FAMILY ; REDUCTION ; TISSUES ; CONTRAST ; mechanisms ; DYNAMICS ; BINDING ; CELL-LINES ; DOWN-REGULATION ; MEMBERS ; treatment ; TARGET ; ELEMENT ; polymer ; hepatocarcinogenesis ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; MOBILITY ; CELL-LINE ; CANCER-CELLS ; MIGRATION ; MORPHOLOGY ; PHENOTYPE ; BINDING-PROTEINS ; C-MYC ; OVEREXPRESSION ; cell lines ; MITOSIS ; BINDING PROTEIN ; HUMAN BREAST-CANCER ; FAMILIES ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; PATIENT SURVIVAL ; cell proliferation ; structure ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; LEVEL ; bioavailability ; STATHMIN ; USA ; MICROTUBULE DYNAMICS ; MOTILITY ; HUMAN HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; DIVISION ; MALIGNANT PHENOTYPE ; MODIFIERS ; HUMAN HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS
    Abstract: Microtubule-dependent effects are partly regulated by factors that coordinate polymer dynamics such as the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin (oncoprotein 18). In cancer cells, increased microtubule turnover affects cell morphology and cellular processes that rely on microtubule dynamics such as mitosis and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms deregulating modifiers of microtubule activity in human hepatocarcinogenesis are poorly understood. Based on profiling data of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we identified far upstream element binding proteins (FBPs) as significantly coregulated with stathmin. Coordinated overexpression of two FBP family members (FBP-1 and FBP-2) in 〉70% of all analyzed human HCCs significantly correlated with poor patient survival. In vitro, FBP-1 predominantly induced tumor cell proliferation, while FBP-2 primarily supported migration in different HCC cell lines. Surprisingly, reduction of FBP-2 levels was associated with elevated FBP-1 expression, suggesting a regulatory interplay of FBP family members that functionally discriminate between cell division and mobility. Expression of FBP-1 correlated with stathmin expression in HCC tissues and inhibition of FBP-1 but not of FBP-2 drastically reduced stathmin at the transcript and protein levels. In contrast, further overexpression of FBP-1 did not affect stathmin bioavailability. Accordingly, analyzing nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of HCC cells revealed that reduced FBP-1 levels affected cell morphology and were associated with a less malignant phenotype. Conclusion: The coordinated activation of FBP-1 and FBP-2 represents a novel and frequent pro-tumorigenic mechanism promoting proliferation (tumor growth) and motility (dissemination) of human liver cancer cells. FBPs promote tumor-relevant functions by at least partly employing the microtubule-destabilizing factor stathmin and represent a new potential target structure for HCC treatment. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;50:1130-1139.)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19585652
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; proliferation ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; MICROSCOPY ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; CARCINOGENESIS ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; CANCER-CELLS ; LOCALIZATION ; PHENOTYPE ; CARCINOMAS ; STRATEGIES ; TARGETS ; pathology ; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION ; PATTERN ; LIGHT ; tissue microarray ; adipophilin ; FATTY-ACID SYNTHASE ; TIP47 ; STRATEGY ; PROPOSAL ; HEPATIC STEATOSIS ; lipid droplet ; PERILIPIN
    Abstract: In many human cancers, lipogenic pathways are activated; in some tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, this is reflected by the presence of visible lipid droplets. Yet, the biology of steatogenesis in malignant tumors is largely unknown. We have recently shown that lipid droplet-associated proteins of the PAT-family, named after their constituents perilipin (perilipin 1), adipophilin (perilipin 2), and TIP47 (perilipin 3) are differentially expressed in hepatic steatogenesis. We have comprehensively investigated PAT-expression in neoplastic steatogenesis as well as in respective normal tissues with immunohistology and electron microscopy as well as protein biochemical and molecular biological methods. By staining for PAT-proteins, we found lipid droplet accumulation to be a frequent phenomenon of carcinoma cells. Although adipophilin and TIP47 stained almost ubiquitously the rim of lipid droplets in various tumor types, especially those with clear cell phenotype, perilipin was restricted to lipid droplets of hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma, sebaceous adenoma and carcinoma, and lipomatous tumors. In hepatocellular carcinoma, perilipin, adipophilin, and TIP47 were coexpressed, and showed regional heterogeneity with a predominantly mutually exclusive localization pattern. In step-wise carcinogenesis, adipophilin expression correlated with the proliferation rate and was upregulated during early tumorigenesis, whereas perilipin was often lost during hepatocarcinogenesis. In conclusion, expression analysis of PAT-proteins showed that by far more carcinomas contain (PAT-positive) lipid droplets than expected by conventional light microscopy. PAT-proteins, such as perilipin, are differentially expressed in different tumor types and thus may support diagnostic considerations. Because inhibition of lipogenesis has been shown to exert antineoplastic effects, PAT-proteins may represent targets for interventive strategies. Modern Pathology (2010) 23, 480-492; doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2009.191; published online 15 January 2010
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20081801
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