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  • 1
    Keywords: RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; INEQUALITIES ; MELLITUS ; LIFE-COURSE ; LOW-INCOME ; MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS ; MULTIPLE DEPRIVATION ; SMALL-AREA LEVEL
    Abstract: AIM: Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes increases with increasing regional deprivation even after controlling for individual socio-economic status. METHODS: We pooled cross-sectional data from five German population-based studies. The data set contained information on n = 11 688 study participants (men 50.1%) aged 45-74 years, of whom 1008 people had prevalent Type 2 diabetes (men 56.2%). Logistic multilevel regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes prevalence. We controlled for sex, age and lifestyle risk factors, individual socio-economic status and regional deprivation, based on a new small-area deprivation measure, the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. RESULTS: Adjusted for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking status and alcohol consumption, the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes showed a stepwise increase in risk with increasing area deprivation [OR 1.88 (95% CI 1.16-3.04) in quintile 4 and OR 2.14 (95% CI 1.29-3.55) in quintile 5 compared with the least deprived quintile 1], even after controlling for individual socio-economic status. Focusing on individual socio-economic status alone, the risk of having diabetes was significantly higher for low compared with medium or high educational level [OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.24-1.71)] and for the lowest compared with the highest income group [OR 1.53 (95% CI 1.18-1.99)]. CONCLUSION: Regional deprivation plays a significant part in the explanation of diabetes prevalence in Germany independently of individual socio-economic status. The results of the present study could help to target public health measures in deprived regions.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23127142
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  • 2
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; RISK ; ATHEROSCLEROSIS ; GLUCOSE ; INDIVIDUALS ; PREVALENCE ; MELLITUS ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; SOUTHERN GERMANY ; METABOLIC-SYNDROME
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Population-based data are paramount to investigate the long-term course of diabetes, for planning in healthcare and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of primary prevention. We analysed regional differences in the incidence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus in Germany. METHODS: Data of participants (baseline age 45-74 years) from five regional population-based studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were included (mean follow-up 2.2-7.1 years). The incidence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus at follow-up was compared. The incidence rates per 1000 person-years (95% CI) and the cumulative incidence (95% CI) from regional studies were directly standardised to the German population (31 December 2007) and weighted by inverse probability weights for losses to follow-up. RESULTS: Of 8787 participants, 521 (5.9%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus corresponding to an incidence rate of 11.8/1000 person-years (95% CI 10.8 to 12.9). The regional incidence was highest in the East and lowest in the South of Germany with 16.9 (95% CI 13.3 to 21.8) vs 9.3 (95% CI 7.4 to 11.1)/1000 person-years, respectively. The incidence increased with age and was higher in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus shows regional differences within Germany. Prevention measures need to consider sex-specific differences and probably can be more efficiently introduced toward those regions in need.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25073594
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  • 3
    Keywords: POPULATION ; RISK ; HEALTH ; HYPERTENSION ; PREVALENCE ; MANAGEMENT ; GUIDELINES ; MELLITUS ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; PULSE PRESSURE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a very common comorbidity and major risk factor for cardiovascular complications, especially in people with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Nevertheless, studies in the past have shown that blood pressure is often insufficiently controlled in medical practice. For the DIAB-CARE study, we used longitudinal data based on the German DIAB-CORE Consortium to assess whether health care regarding hypertension has improved during the last decade in our participants. METHODS: Data of the three regional population-based studies CARLA (baseline 2002-2006 and follow-up 2007-2010), KORA (baseline 1999-2001 and follow-up 2006-2008) and SHIP (baseline 1997-2001 and follow-up 2002-2006) were pooled. Stratified by T2D status we analysed changes in frequencies, degrees of awareness, treatment and control. Linear mixed models were conducted to assess the influence of sex, age, study, and T2D status on changes of systolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up examinations (mean observation time 5.7 years). We included 4,683 participants aged 45 to 74 years with complete data and accounted for 1,256 participants who were lost to follow-up by inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Mean systolic blood pressure decreased in all groups from baseline to follow-up (e.g. - 8.5 mmHg in those with incident T2D). Pulse pressure (PP) was markedly higher in persons with T2D than in persons without T2D (64.14 mmHg in prevalent T2D compared to 52.87 mmHg in non-T2D at baseline) and did not change much between the two examinations. Awareness, treatment and control increased considerably in all subgroups however, the percentage of those with insufficiently controlled hypertension remained high (at about 50% of those with hypertension) especially in prevalent T2D. Particularly elderly people with T2D often had both, high blood pressure 〉/=140/90 mmHg and a PP of 〉/=60 mmHg. Blood pressure in men had improved more than in women at follow-up, however, men still had higher mean SBP than women at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Blood pressure management has developed positively during past years in Germany. While hypertension prevalence, awareness and treatment were substantially higher in participants with T2D than in those without T2D at follow-up, hypertension control was achieved only in about half the number of people in each T2D group leaving much room for further improvement.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26221962
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  • 4
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; SAMPLE ; CARE ; VALIDITY ; MANAGEMENT ; GLYCEMIC CONTROL ; MELLITUS ; ADULTS ; APPRAISAL
    Abstract: AIM: This study compares health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) across treatment groups and explores gender differences. METHODS: Four regional surveys (KORA, CARLA, SHIP, DHS) and a national survey (GNHIES98) were pooled at individual level. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12/-36v1. Linear regression models were used to assess the effect of T2DM by treatment type (no medication; oral; oral/insulin combination; insulin) on the physical (PCS-12) and mental summary score (MCS-12) and the SF-6D, controlling for age, sex, study and covariates. We also performed an explanatory analysis of single items. RESULTS: PCS-12 scores and treatment type were associated (P-value 0.006), with lowest values for insulin treatment (-4.44 vs. oral; -4.41 vs. combination). MCS-12 scores were associated with treatment type and gender (P-value 〈0.012), with lower scores for women undergoing oral (-4.25 vs. men) and combination treatment (-6.99 vs. men). Similar results were observed for SF-6D utilities and single items, related to mental health, social functioning, vitality and role limitation (emotional). Comorbidities were predictors of lower PCS-12 and SF-6D scores. CONCLUSIONS: T2DM treatment impacts differently on physical and mental HRQL and on women and men. Further studies of gender-specific perceptions of T2DM treatment regimens are needed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25499244
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  • 5
    Keywords: FOLLOW-UP ; RISK ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; ADULTS ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; JAPANESE MEN ; WEIGHT CHANGE
    Abstract: Our objective was to investigate the association of change of anthropometric measurements and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a pooled sample of 2 population-based cohorts.A final sample of 1324 women and 1278 men aged 31 to 83 years from 2 prospective cohorts in Germany, the CARLA (Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle) and the SHIP study (Study of Health in Pomerania), were pooled. The association of change of body weight and waist circumference (WC) with incidence of T2DM was assessed by calculating sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs). We investigated the absolute change of markers of obesity as well as change relative to the baseline value and estimated crude and adjusted HRs. Furthermore, we conducted the analyses stratified by obesity status and age (〈60 vs 〉/=60 years) at baseline.Associations were found for both change of body weight and WC and incidence of T2DM in the crude and adjusted analyses. In the stratified study sample, those participants with a body mass index of 〈30 kg/m at baseline showed considerably lower HRs compared with obese women and men for both weight and WC. In the age-stratified analysis, we still found associations between change of weight and WC and incident T2DM with only marginal differences between the age groups.Our study showed associations of change of weight and WC as markers of obesity with incidence of T2DM. Keeping a healthy and primarily stable weight should be the goal for preventing the development of T2DM.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26313783
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  • 6
    Keywords: DISEASE ; POPULATION ; METABOLISM ; PATIENT ; QUALITY ; RISK-FACTORS ; FORM ; score ; AGE ; COMPONENT ; VALIDITY ; DIABETES-MELLITUS ; PREVALENCE ; PROJECT ; MELLITUS ; ADULTS ; pooled analysis ; sex ; Type 2 diabetes mellitus ; CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY ; health-related quality of life
    Abstract: Aims To estimate population values of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus across several large population-based survey studies in Germany. Systematic differences in relation to age and sex were of particular interest. Methods Individual data from four population-based studies from different regions throughout Germany and the nationwide German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES98) were included in a pooled analysis of primary data (N = 9579). HRQL was assessed using the generic index instrument SF-36 (36-item Short Form Health Survey) or its shorter version, the SF-12 (12 items). Regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between Type 2 diabetes and the two component scores derived from the SF-36/SF-12, the physical component summary score (PCS-12) and the mental component summary score (MCS-12), as well as interaction effects with age and sex. Results The PCS-12 differed significantly by -4.1 points in subjects with Type 2 diabetes in comparison with subjects without Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was associated with significantly lower MCS-12 in women only. Higher age was associated with lower PCS-12, but with an increase in MCS-12, for subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Pooled analysis of population-based primary data offers HRQL values for subjects with Type 2 diabetes in Germany, stratified by age and sex. Type 2 diabetes has negative consequences for HRQL, particularly for women. This underlines the burden of disease and the importance of diabetes prevention. Factors that disadvantage women with Type 2 diabetes need to be researched more thoroughly
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21978176
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