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  • CALIBRATION  (9)
  • AGE  (7)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; PHOSPHORUS ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; CALCIUM ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; RETINOL ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; IRON ; dietary patterns ; VITAMINS ; RECALLS ; POTASSIUM ; vitamin D ; 24-h dietary recall ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; magnesium ; nutrient intakes ; food component intakes ; food group combinations ; reduced rank regression
    Abstract: Objective: To identify combinations of food groups that explain as much variation in absolute intakes of 23 key nutrients and food components as possible within the country-specific populations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects/Methods: The analysis covered single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) from 36 034 subjects (13 025 men and 23 009 women), aged 35-74 years, from all 10 countries participating in the EPIC study. In a set of 39 food groups, reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify those combinations (RRR factors) that explain the largest proportion of variation in intake of 23 key nutrients and food components, namely, proteins, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sugars (sum of mono-and disaccharides), starch, fibre, alcohol, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C (RRR responses). Analyses were performed at the country level and for all countries combined. Results: In the country-specific analyses, the first RRR factor explained a considerable proportion of the total nutrient intake variation in all 10 countries (27.4-37.1%). The subsequent RRR factors were much less important in explaining the variation (〈= 6%). Strong similarities were observed for the first country-specific RRR factor between the individual countries, largely characterized by consumption of bread, vegetable oils, red meat, milk, cheese, potatoes, margarine and processed meat. The highest explained variation was seen for protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium (50-70%), whereas sugars, beta-carotene, retinol and alcohol were only marginally explained (〈= 5%). The explained proportion of the other nutrients ranged between these extremes. Conclusions: A combination of food groups was identified that explained a considerable proportion of the nutrient intake variation in 24-HDRs in every country-specific EPIC population in a similar manner. This indicates that, despite the large variability in food and nutrient intakes reported in the EPIC, the variance of intake of important nutrients is explained, to a large extent, by similar food group combinations across countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888278
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; ACIDS ; OBESITY ; VALIDITY ; PROJECT ; CALIBRATION ; ADULTS ; PARTICIPANTS ; CUTOFF
    Abstract: Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95% CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95% CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95% CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over-or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95% CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22716915
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  • 4
    Keywords: POPULATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; METAANALYSIS ; PREMENOPAUSAL ; CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION ; SEX-HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS ; DECAFFEINATED COFFEE
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Specific coffee subtypes and tea may impact risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer differently. We investigated the association between coffee (total, caffeinated, decaffeinated) and tea intake and risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 335,060 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) Study, completed a dietary questionnaire from 1992 to 2000, and were followed-up until 2010 for incidence of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) of breast cancer by country-specific, as well as cohort-wide categories of beverage intake were estimated. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 years, 1064 premenopausal, and 9134 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. Caffeinated coffee intake was associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: adjusted HR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82 to 0.98, for high versus low consumption; P trend = 0.029. While there was no significant effect modification by hormone receptor status (P = 0.711), linear trend for lower risk of breast cancer with increasing caffeinated coffee intake was clearest for estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-), postmenopausal breast cancer (P = 0.008). For every 100 ml increase in caffeinated coffee intake, the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer was lower by 4% (adjusted HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.00). Non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee had lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (adjusted HR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.99) compared to low consumers, without evidence of dose-response relationship (P trend = 0.128). Exclusive decaffeinated coffee consumption was not related to postmenopausal breast cancer risk, compared to any decaffeinated-low caffeinated intake (adjusted HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.14), or to no intake of any coffee (HR: 0.96; 95%: 0.82 to 1.14). Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Tea intake was neither associated with pre- nor post-menopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Higher caffeinated coffee intake may be associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Decaffeinated coffee intake does not seem to be associated with breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25637171
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEART ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; REDUCTION ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; ALCOHOL ; IMPROVES ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; FOOD ; HEART-DISEASE ; Mediterranean diet ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; INTERVAL ; elderly ; prospective ; PEOPLE ; UNIT ; COMMUNITY ; myocardial infarction ; coronary heart disease ; DEATHS
    Abstract: Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease, and two randomised trials indicated that it improves prognosis of coronary patients. These trials, however, relied on a total of 100 deaths and evaluated designer diets in the clinical context. We have evaluated the association of adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, with survival among elderly with previous myocardial infarction within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. As of December 2003, after a median follow-up of 6.7 years, 2671 EPIC participants from nine countries were 60 years or older and had prevalent myocardial infarction but no stroke or cancer at enrolment, complete information on dietary intakes and important covariates and known survival status. Adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was assessed through a 10-unit-scale. Mortality ratio in relation to modified Mediterranean diet was estimated through Cox regression controlling for possible confounding. Increased adherence to modified Mediterranean diet by two units was associated with 18% lower overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval 7-27%, fixed effects model). There was no significant heterogeneity by sex, age at enrolment, or country, although the association tended to be less evident among northern Europeans. Associations between food groups contributing to the modified Mediterranean diet and mortality were generally weak. A diet inspired by the Mediterranean pattern that can be easily adopted by Western populations is associated with substantial reduction of total mortality of coronary patients in the community
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17926134
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  • 6
    Keywords: COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; INDEX ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; VALIDITY ; CALIBRATION ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; METAANALYSIS ; FAT INTAKE
    Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22610753
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; validation ; MEASUREMENT ERROR ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; MULTICENTER ; FOOD ; HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS ; glycidamide
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objectives of this study were to compare dietary estimates of acrylamide from questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h recalls (R) with levels of acrylamide adduct (AA) in haemoglobin. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, acrylamide exposure was assessed in 510 participants from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, sex, with equal numbers of never and current smokers. After adjusting for country, alcohol intake, smoking status, number of cigarettes and energy intake, correlation coefficients between various acrylamide measurements were computed, both at the individual and at the aggregate (centre) level. RESULTS: Individual level correlation coefficient between DQ and R measurements (r DQ,R) was 0.17, while r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. In never smokers, r DQ,R, r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.19, 0.09 and 0.02, respectively. The correlation coefficients between means of DQ, R and AA measurements at the centre level were larger (r 〉 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that estimates of total acrylamide intake based on self-reported diet correlate weakly with biomarker AA Hb levels. Possible explanations are the lack of AA levels to capture dietary acrylamide due to individual differences in the absorption and metabolism of acrylamide, and/or measurement errors in acrylamide from self-reported dietary assessments, thus limiting the possibility to validate acrylamide DQ measurements.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23114503
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; RISK ; IDENTIFICATION ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; smoking ; DIET ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; Mediterranean diet ; CLUSTER ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; cluster analysis ; dietary patterns ; elderly ; EUROPEANS ; GREEK POPULATION ; PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ; QUALITY INDEX
    Abstract: Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16115339
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  • 9
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; COMMON ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; UNITED-STATES ; INDIVIDUALS ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; meat ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; TRENDS ; EUROPE ; LOCATION ; FOOD ; physical activity ; YOUNG ; SINGLE ; ADULTS ; REGRESSION ; DETERMINANTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; RECALL ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; YOUNG-ADULTS ; EXTENT ; ENGLAND ; FOODS ; 24-hour dietary recall ; LOGISTIC-REGRESSION ; correlates ; comparison ; lipid ; household ; eating locations ; eating out of home ; energy intake
    Abstract: Objective: To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH caters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants. Setting: Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects: The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21733 women, aged 35-74 years. Results: The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe. Conclusions: Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17582244
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  • 10
    Keywords: CANCER ; COHORT ; DEATH ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; AGE ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; PARTICIPANTS ; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; ACCELEROMETRY ; HEART-RATE
    Abstract: Background: The protective effect of physical activity (PA) on abdominal adiposity is unclear. Objective: We examined whether PA independently predicted gains in body weight and abdominal adiposity. Design: In a prospective cohort study [the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)], we followed 84,511 men and 203,987 women for 5.1 y. PA was assessed by a validated questionnaire, and individuals were categorized into 4 groups (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Body weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up. We used multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models and stratified our analyses by sex with adjustments for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, total energy intake, duration of follow-up, baseline body weight, change in body weight, and waist circumference (when applicable). Results: PA significantly predicted a lower waist circumference (in cm) in men (beta = -0.045; 95% CI: -0.057, -0.034) and in women (beta = -0.035; 95% CI: -0.056, -0.015) independent of baseline body weight, baseline waist circumference, and other confounding factors. The magnitude of associations was materially unchanged after adjustment for change in body weight. PA was not significantly associated with annual weight gain (in kg) in men (beta = -0.008; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.003) and women (beta = -0.01; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.0006). The odds of becoming obese were reduced by 7% (P 〈 0.001) and 10% (P 〈 0.001) for a one-category difference in baseline PA in men and women, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a higher level of PA reduces abdominal adiposity independent of baseline and changes in body weight and is thus a useful strategy for preventing chronic diseases and premature deaths. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:826-35
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21346093
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