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  • AGE  (1)
  • CALCIUM  (1)
  • ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: TIME ; ASSOCIATION ; prevention ; CALCIUM ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; SERUM-LEVELS ; NURSES HEALTH ; D-BINDING PROTEIN ; FRENCH E3N COHORT ; CIRCULATING VITAMIN-D
    Abstract: Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D might play a role in the development of breast cancer. Although the results of case-control studies indicate that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer, the results of prospective studies are inconsistent. A case-control study embedded in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was carried out comprising 1,391 incident breast cancer cases and 1,391 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models did not reveal a significant overall association between season-standardized 25(OH)D levels and the risk of breast cancer (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 1.07 [0.85-1.36], p(trend) = 0.67). Moreover, 25(OH)D levels were not related to the risks of estrogen receptor positive tumors (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.67-1.38], p(trend) = 0.90) and estrogen receptor negative tumors (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.66-1.42], p(trend) = 0.98). In hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users, 25(OH)D was significantly inversely associated with incident breast cancer (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.42-0.90], p = 0.01), whereas no significant association was found in HRT nonusers (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 1.14 [0.80-1.62], p = 0.48). Further, a nonsignificant inverse association was found in women with body mass indices (BMI) 〈 25 kg/m(2) (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 0.83 [0.67-1.03], p = 0.09), as opposed to a borderline significant positive association in women with BMI 25 kg/m(2) (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 1.30 [1.0-1.69], p = 0.05). Overall, prediagnostic levels of circulating 25(OH)D were not related to the risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study. This result is in line with findings in the majority of prospective studies and does not support a role of vitamin D in the development of breast cancer. What's new? Experimental studies have indicated that vitamin D may play a role in preventing tumor formation in the breast. However, in the present investigation, the largest prospective case-control study on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and breast cancer risk conducted to date, pre-diagnostic levels of 25(OH)D were found to be unrelated to overall breast cancer risk. While the results support those of similar prospective studies, a significant inverse association was detected between 25(OH)D levels and incident breast cancer in women taking hormone replacement therapy, suggesting that background factors may influence risk associations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23526380
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  • 2
    Keywords: prevention ; HEALTH ; AGE ; VALIDITY ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; exercise ; BODY-SIZE ; ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE ; REPEATABILITY
    Abstract: Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of invasive breast cancer. However, whether this holds true for breast cancer subtypes defined by the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) status is controversial. The study included 257,805 women from the multinational EPIC-cohort study with detailed information on occupational, recreational and household physical activity and important cofactors assessed at baseline. During 11.6 years of median follow-up, 8,034 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Data on ER, PR and combined ER/PR expression were available for 6,007 (67.6%), 4,814 (54.2%) and 4,798 (53.9%) cases, respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by proportional hazards models. Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with moderate and high levels of total physical activity (HR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.860.99, HR = 0.87, 95%-CI: 0.790.97, respectively; p-trend = 0.002), compared to the lowest quartile. Among women diagnosed with breast cancer after age 50, the largest risk reduction was found with highest activity (HR = 0.86, 95%-CI: 0.770.97), whereas for cancers diagnosed before age 50 strongest associations were found for moderate total physical activity (HR = 0.78, 95%-CI: 0.640.94). Analyses by hormone receptor status suggested differential associations for total physical activity (p-heterogeneity = 0.04), with a somewhat stronger inverse relationship for ER+/PR+ breast tumors, primarily driven by PR+ tumors (p-heterogeneity 〈 0.01). Household physical activity was inversely associated with ER/PR tumors. The results of this largest prospective study on the protective effects of physical activity indicate that moderate and high physical activity are associated with modest decreased breast cancer risk. Heterogeneities by receptor status indicate hormone-related mechanisms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22903273
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