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  • 1
    Keywords: ENERGIES ; CANCER ; MODEL ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; colon ; ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; ACIDS ; NO ; hormone ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; colorectal cancer ; MEN ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COUNTRIES ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; FIBER ; FRANCE ; COLON-CANCER ; MULTIVARIATE ; fatty acids ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; CONSUMPTION ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; ASSOCIATIONS ; colon cancer ; WEIGHT ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; DIETARY-INTAKE MEASUREMENTS ; EPIC PROJECT ; HEIGHT
    Abstract: A link between unsaturated fatty acids or phytonutrients and reduced risk of colorectal cancer has been suggested. However, the effects of higher intake of dietary sources of these nutrients, such as the nuts and seeds food group, are less clear. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of nut and seed intake on colorectal cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, a large prospective cohort study involving 10 European countries. Total nut and seed intake was determined from country-specific dietary questionnaires. The data set included 478,040 subjects (141,988 men, 336,052 women) with a total of 855 (327 men, 528 women) colon and 474 (215 men, 259 women) rectal cancer cases. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by center and controlled for fruit intake, dietary fiber, energy, height, weight, sex, age, physical activity, and smoking, was used. The data show no association between higher intake of nuts and seeds and risk of colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers in men and women combined, but a significant inverse association was observed in subgroup analyses for colon cancer in women at the highest (〉6.2 g/d) versus the lowest (nonconsumers; hazard ratio, 0.69;, 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.95) category of intake and for the linear effect of log-transformed intake (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98), with no associations in men. It is not evident from this data why there may be a stronger association in women or why it may be limited to the colon, suggesting that much, further research is necessary
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15466975
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; cohort study ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; PATTERNS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; WOMEN ; HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; risk factors ; COUNTRIES ; cancer risk ; DOSE-RESPONSE ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ONCOLOGY ; INCREASE ; breast neoplasm ; ESTROGEN ; INTERVAL ; methods ; DIETARY-FOLATE INTAKE ; prospective ; INCREASED RISK ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; INCREASES ; TREND ANALYSIS
    Abstract: Objective Most epidemiologic studies have suggested an increased risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol intake. Using data from 274,688 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer. Methods Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) based on Cox proportional hazard models were calculated using reported intake of alcohol, recent (at baseline) and lifetime exposure. We adjusted for known risk factors and stratified according to study center as well as potentially modifying host factors. Results During 6.4 years of follow up, 4,285 invasive cases of breast cancer within the age group 35-75 years were identified. For all countries together the IRR per 10 g/day higher recent alcohol intake (continuous) was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.05). When adjusted, no association was seen between lifetime alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. No difference in risk was shown between users and non-users of HRT, and there was no significant interaction between alcohol intake and BMI, HRT or dietary folate. Conclusion This large European study supports previous findings that recent alcohol intake increases the risk of breast cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17364225
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