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  • ALCOHOL  (7)
Keywords
  • 1
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; score ; PATTERNS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; FISH ; REGION ; DIET ; FAT ; INDIVIDUALS ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; PRODUCTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; ADIPOSITY ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; BMI ; FOODS ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; DAIRY-PRODUCTS ; EPIC-OXFORD PARTICIPANTS ; WEIGHT-LOSS ; Abdominal ; ABDOMINAL ADIPOSITY ; ELDERLY-PEOPLE ; HEALTH-STATUS ; TO-HIP RATIO
    Abstract: Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific questionnaires, and anthropometrical measurements were collected using standardized procedures. The association between the degree of adherence to the modified-Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) (including high consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish and seafood, and unsaturated: saturated fatty acids ratio; moderate alcohol intake; and low consumption of meat and meat products and dairy products) and BMI (kg.m(-2)) or WC (cm was modeled through mixed-effects linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, the mMDS was not significantly associated with BMI. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower WC, for a given BMI, in both men (-0.09; 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04) and women (-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01). The association was stronger in men (-0.20; 95% CI -0.23 to -0.17) and women (-0.17; 95% CI -0.21 to -0.13) from Northern European countries. Despite the observed heterogeneity among regions, results of this study suggest that adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, high in foods of vegetable origin and unsaturated fatty acids, is associated with lower abdominal adiposity measured by WC in European men and women. J. Nutr. 139: 1728-1737, 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19571036
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; PHOSPHORUS ; WOMEN ; COUNTRIES ; FATTY-ACIDS ; DIETARY ; CALCIUM ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; CALIBRATION ; FOOD ; nutrient intake ; BETA-CAROTENE ; NUTRIENTS ; RETINOL ; RECALL ; EPIC PROJECT ; IRON ; dietary patterns ; VITAMINS ; RECALLS ; POTASSIUM ; vitamin D ; 24-h dietary recall ; VEGETABLE-OIL ; magnesium ; nutrient intakes ; food component intakes ; food group combinations ; reduced rank regression
    Abstract: Objective: To identify combinations of food groups that explain as much variation in absolute intakes of 23 key nutrients and food components as possible within the country-specific populations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects/Methods: The analysis covered single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) from 36 034 subjects (13 025 men and 23 009 women), aged 35-74 years, from all 10 countries participating in the EPIC study. In a set of 39 food groups, reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify those combinations (RRR factors) that explain the largest proportion of variation in intake of 23 key nutrients and food components, namely, proteins, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sugars (sum of mono-and disaccharides), starch, fibre, alcohol, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C (RRR responses). Analyses were performed at the country level and for all countries combined. Results: In the country-specific analyses, the first RRR factor explained a considerable proportion of the total nutrient intake variation in all 10 countries (27.4-37.1%). The subsequent RRR factors were much less important in explaining the variation (〈= 6%). Strong similarities were observed for the first country-specific RRR factor between the individual countries, largely characterized by consumption of bread, vegetable oils, red meat, milk, cheese, potatoes, margarine and processed meat. The highest explained variation was seen for protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium (50-70%), whereas sugars, beta-carotene, retinol and alcohol were only marginally explained (〈= 5%). The explained proportion of the other nutrients ranged between these extremes. Conclusions: A combination of food groups was identified that explained a considerable proportion of the nutrient intake variation in 24-HDRs in every country-specific EPIC population in a similar manner. This indicates that, despite the large variability in food and nutrient intakes reported in the EPIC, the variance of intake of important nutrients is explained, to a large extent, by similar food group combinations across countries.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19888278
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; MODEL ; FOLLOW-UP ; INFORMATION ; COHORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; incidence ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; HEART ; PATIENT ; prognosis ; REDUCTION ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; HEALTH ; AGE ; COUNTRIES ; POPULATIONS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION ; ALCOHOL ; IMPROVES ; EPIC ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; FOOD ; HEART-DISEASE ; Mediterranean diet ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; INTERVAL ; elderly ; prospective ; PEOPLE ; UNIT ; COMMUNITY ; myocardial infarction ; coronary heart disease ; DEATHS
    Abstract: Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease, and two randomised trials indicated that it improves prognosis of coronary patients. These trials, however, relied on a total of 100 deaths and evaluated designer diets in the clinical context. We have evaluated the association of adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, with survival among elderly with previous myocardial infarction within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. As of December 2003, after a median follow-up of 6.7 years, 2671 EPIC participants from nine countries were 60 years or older and had prevalent myocardial infarction but no stroke or cancer at enrolment, complete information on dietary intakes and important covariates and known survival status. Adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was assessed through a 10-unit-scale. Mortality ratio in relation to modified Mediterranean diet was estimated through Cox regression controlling for possible confounding. Increased adherence to modified Mediterranean diet by two units was associated with 18% lower overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval 7-27%, fixed effects model). There was no significant heterogeneity by sex, age at enrolment, or country, although the association tended to be less evident among northern Europeans. Associations between food groups contributing to the modified Mediterranean diet and mortality were generally weak. A diet inspired by the Mediterranean pattern that can be easily adopted by Western populations is associated with substantial reduction of total mortality of coronary patients in the community
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17926134
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  • 5
    Keywords: smoking ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; DIETARY-INTAKE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BMI ; RISK-FACTOR ; BODY-FAT DISTRIBUTION ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; androgens ; TO-HIP RATIO ; Waist-to-hip ratio ; FRENCH MEN ; multi-centric cohort study
    Abstract: Background/Objectives: The relation between lifetime use of alcohol and measures of abdominal and general adiposity is unknown. Subjects/Methods: Among 99 381 men and 158 796 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, means of waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI), and odds ratios (OR) for a larger WC than predicted for a given BMI (WClp = positive residuals of gender specific linear regression of BMI on WC) across categories of average lifetime use of alcohol (total, from wine and from beer) were calculated, all adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors. Results: WC, WHR and BMI in men using lifetime 〈= 6 g/d alcohol were 95.1 cm, 0.942 and 27.3 kg/m(2), and 96.2 cm, 0.961 and 28.3 kg/m(2) when using 496 g/d. WC and WHR in women was 83.2 cm and 0.813 for 〈= 6 g/d, and 84.6 cm and 0.830 for 460 g/d, whereas BMI deviated only slightly with the lowest BMI (26.7 kg/m(2)) observed for 46-24 g/d. Compared with 〈= 6 g/d, OR for a WClp in both genders increased steadily across categories of alcohol use (up to 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.32, 1.49) in men using 〉60 g/d and 1.63 (1.54, 1.73) in women using 〉24 g/d), though increase was higher for alcohol from beer than from wine (P for difference between beer and wine 〈0.001 (men) and = 0.002 (women)). Conclusion: Lifetime alcohol use is positively related to abdominal and general adiposity in men, possibly following the male weight gain pattern; in women, it is positively related only to abdominal adiposity. In this context, beer may contribute additionally to abdominal adiposity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21559044
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; INFORMATION ; cohort study ; POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; EPIC ; EUROPE ; Mediterranean diet ; fat distribution ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; OVERWEIGHT ; smoking cessation ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; weight gain ; LIFE EXPECTANCY ; SUN COHORT
    Abstract: Purpose. We assessed the association between smoking cessation and prospective weight change in the European population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking. Eating out of home And obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Methods. The study involved more than 300,000 healthy volunteers, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 9 European countries, who provided data on anthropometry and smoking habits at baseline and after a follow-up of 5 years on average. Adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models were used to obtain sex-specific summary estimates of the association between the change in smoking status and the annual change in weight. Results. Smoking cessation tends to be followed by weight gain; when compared to stable smokers, annual weight gain was higher in men (0.44 kg (95%CI: 0.36; 0.52)) and women (0.46 kg (95%CI: 0.41; 0.52)) who stopped smoking during follow-up. When smokers who stopped smoking at least 1 year before recruitment were compared to never smokers, no major differences in annual weight gain were observed. The excess weight gain following smoking cessation appears to mainly occur in the first years following the cessation. Conclusions. When considering the benefits of smoking cessation, such findings strengthen the need for promoting cessation offering information on weight gain control and support to weight-concerned smokers in order to remove a barrier to quitting.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21939684
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DISEASE ; RISK ; IDENTIFICATION ; PATTERNS ; AGE ; WOMEN ; smoking ; DIET ; DIETARY ; ALCOHOL ; nutrition ; LIFE-STYLE ; EUROPE ; FOOD ; Mediterranean diet ; CLUSTER ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE ; cluster analysis ; dietary patterns ; elderly ; EUROPEANS ; GREEK POPULATION ; PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ; QUALITY INDEX
    Abstract: Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16115339
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