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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; MODEL ; MODELS ; SYSTEM ; COHORT ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; DRUG ; MICE ; RESPONSES ; MECHANISM ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; RATS ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; ALPHA ; CREB ; ELEMENT ; ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN ; ISOFORM ; MUTANT ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; NO ; TARGETED MUTATION ; DECREASE ; STRESS ; MUTATION ; MODULATION ; REGION ; REGIONS ; Jun ; INVOLVEMENT ; BEHAVIOR ; FOOD ; LACKING ; BINDING PROTEIN ; molecular ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISM ; DEPENDENCE ; NEURONS ; KNOCKOUT MICE ; ADDICTION ; CERULEUS ; conditioned place preference ; emotional behavior ; locus coeruleus ; LOCUS-COERULEUS NEURONS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; NEURAL PLASTICITY ; opiate addiction ; OPIATE-WITHDRAWAL
    Abstract: The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) has been shown to regulate different physiological responses including drug addiction and emotional behavior. Molecular changes including adaptive modifications of the transcription factor CREB are produced during drug dependence in many regions of the brain, including the locus coeruleus (LC), but the molecular mechanisms involving CREB within these regions have remained controversial. To further investigate the involvement of CREB in emotional behavior, drug reward and opioid physical dependence, we used two independently generated CREB-deficient mice. We employed the Cre/loxP system to generate mice with a conditional CREB mutation restricted to the nervous system, where all CREB isoforms are lacking in the brain (Creb / (NesCre)). A genetically defined cohort of the previously described hypomorphic Creb / (alphaDelta) mice, in which the two major transcriptionally active isoforms (alpha and Delta) are disrupted throughout the organism, were also used. First, we investigated the responses to stress of the CREB-deficient mice in several paradigms, and we found an increased anxiogenic-like response in the both Creb / mutant mice in different behavioral models. We investigated the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse (cocaine and morphine) and natural reward (food) using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. No modification of motivational responses of morphine, cocaine, or food was observed in mutant mice. Finally, we evaluated opioid dependence by measuring the behavioral expression of morphine withdrawal and electrophysiological recordings of LC neurons. We showed an important attenuation of the behavioral expression of abstinence and a decrease in the hyperactivity of LC neurons in both Creb / mutant mice. Our results emphasize the selective role played by neuronal CREB in emotional-like behavior and the somatic expression morphine withdrawal, without participating in the rewarding properties induced by morphine and cocaine
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15029152
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; CELL ; Germany ; MODEL ; VITRO ; SYSTEM ; NEW-YORK ; GENE ; GENOME ; PROTEIN ; recombination ; ALPHA ; MOUSE ; PROMOTER ; PROMOTERS ; inactivation ; BETA ; alpha complementation,iCre recombinase,IoxP ; COMPLEMENTATION ; POLYPEPTIDE ; SITE-SPECIFIC RECOMBINATION
    Abstract: The Cre-IoxP system is increasingly exploited for spatial and temporal gene inactivation. Here we present a novel approach to achieve this goal of selective gene inactivation. Following the model of complementation in the beta-galactosidase enzyme, where the enzyme is split into independent polypeptides which are able to associate and maintain the enzymatic activity, we divided the Cre recombinase into two independent polypeptides (one containing the NH2 terminus (alpha) and a second one containing the COOH-terminus (beta)). Individually, the two polypeptides have no detectable activity. However, when coexpressed the polypeptides are able to associate, giving rise to Cre enzymatic activity, which optimally is as high as 30% of that seen with wildtype Cre recombinase in vitro. We present this strategy as a modification of the traditional Cre-IoxP system, which could be used to obtain a highly specific recombination pattern by expressing the two halves under the control of separate promoters. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14502574
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