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  • 1
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; PATHWAYS ; DEATH ; MESSENGER-RNA ; IDENTIFICATION ; chemotherapy ; PROGRESS ; Anti-cancer ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM-STRESS ; ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR-3 ; Bio-weapon ; Depurination ; RICIN ; RIP ; Riproximin ; UPR ; Volkensin ; XIMENIA-AMERICANA
    Abstract: Cytotoxic ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) of type II such as ricin were investigated as anti-cancer agents, but also pose a threat as biological weapons. The molecular mechanism leading to their toxic effects is, however, not yet clear. The current paradigm, which states that the irreversible depurination of 28S rRNA results in a general translational arrest eventually leading to cell death, has been questioned. Using micro-array, qRT-PCR and Western blot, we identified the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular mechanism activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, that is induced in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to the plant type II RIPs ricin, riproximin and volkensin. Apoptosis was induced by concentrations at which translation of UPR-related genes still occurred, despite concomitant ribosomal depurination. We conclude that UPR induction represents a model that better describes the cellular effects of RIP exposure at concentrations at which selected proteins are translated despite ribosomal depurination.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20844919
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  • 2
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; APOPTOSIS ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; ACTIVATION ; CANCER-CELLS ; curcumin ; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia ; Aminopeptidase N ; AMINOPEPTIDASE-N ; CD13 ; Cytoreductive activity ; MYELOMONOCYTIC ANTIGENS
    Abstract: A total of 50 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), as well as the B-cell leukaemia cell lines MEC-1, JVM-3, and BV-173 were studied in order to assess the incidence of CD13/aminopeptidase N (APN) immunolabelling with a monoclonal antibody 7H5 compared to LeuM7 and to CD13 mRNA levels, and to correlate these data with the cytotoxic and apoptosis-induction activity of the natural phenolic APN inhibitor curcumin. CD13/APN was detected in a significant proportion of B-CLL patients (42/50, 84%), immunolabelled by 7H5 (42/50) +/- LeuM7 (10/50). Molecular analysis for CD13 transcripts confirmed these data, resulting in a specific RT-PCR product in CD13 positive cases. Curcumin showed concentration-dependent cytoreductive efficacy and apoptosis-induction activity in all tested cell lines and primary cultures from CLL mononuclear cells. There was a clear tendency for a better response in CD13 positive cases. The incidence of CD13/APN in CLL suggests that the inhibition of APN/CD13 by curcumin may be an effective new molecular target for a more efficient therapy for these patients and warrants further investigations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22664111
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; GROWTH ; AGENTS ; PATHWAY ; LINES ; EFFICACY ; BONE-MARROW-CELLS ; PERIFOSINE ; Hexadecylphosphocholine ; ALKYLPHOSPHOCHOLINE DERIVATIVES
    Abstract: PURPOSE: This study investigated the antineoplastic effect of the membrane active alkylphosphocholine erufosine in breast carcinoma models in vitro and in vivo and determined its influence on the PI3K/Akt and Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathways. METHODS: The antiproliferative effect of erufosine in vitro was determined by the MTT dye reduction assay, and the antineoplastic efficacy on tumor growth was investigated by relating the mean total tumor volumes of treated and control rats. Immunoblot analysis was used for detecting changes in the expression level of the signal molecules p-PI3K (p-p85), p-Akt at Thr 308 and p-cRaf. RESULTS: Based on their IC(50) (40 muM, respectively), the breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231, which are estrogen receptor positive and negative, respectively, were equally sensitive to erufosine. In addition, erufosine caused dose-dependent decreases in the phosphorylation of PI3K (p85), Akt (PKB) at Thr 308 and cRaf in both cell lines. Moreover, administration of erufosine to rats bearing autochthonous methylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary carcinomas caused a significant dose-related tumor remission by more than 85 % (p 〈 0.05), which was well tolerated, as evidenced by a body weight loss of maximally 7 % and reduced tumor-related mortality (2 of 35 instead of 6 of 18 controls, p 〈 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate that erufosine possesses high antineoplastic activity not only in human breast cancer cell lines in vitro but also in rat mammary carcinoma in vivo. In addition, it can be derived that the mechanism of action of erufosine involves influence on both, PI3K/Akt and Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathways.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22752602
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; THERAPY ; resistance ; GEMCITABINE ; CANCER PROGRESSION ; liver metastasis ; RIBOSOME-INACTIVATING PROTEINS ; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma ; XIMENIA-AMERICANA
    Abstract: Riproximin (Rpx) is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, which was investigated for its activity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in a panel of 17 human and rat PDAC cell lines and in rat pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Cytotoxicity in response to Rpx was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR for apoptosis related genes, and the modulation of the transcriptome was monitored by micro array analysis. The combination effect of Rpx and TRAIL was assessed by MTT assay. Rpx showed high but varying cytotoxicity in PDAC cells. Based on overall gene expression, the sensitivity of these cells was linked to genes involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, based on the affinity of Rpx for CEA, the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) genes was significantly related to Rpx's cytotoxicity in cells with CEACAM gene expression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24918923
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  • 5
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; MELANOMA-CELLS ; CYCLE ARREST ; anticancer activity ; XIMENIA-AMERICANA ; MOMORDICA-CHARANTIA ; MDA-7/IL-24
    Abstract: Riproximin (Rpx) is a type II ribosome inactivating protein, which was extracted and purified from the seeds of Ximenia americana. Previous studies demonstrated cytotoxicity of Rpx against a variety of cell lines originating from solid and non-solid cancers. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic aspects of Rpx in selected human and rat colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Cytotoxic levels of Rpx were determined by MTT assay, while cytostatic and apoptotic effects were investigated by flow cytometry and nuclear staining procedures. Effects of Rpx exposure on colony formation/migration of CRC cells and expressional modulations in anticancer/stress-related genes were also studied. Rpx showed significant and comparable levels of cytotoxicity in CRC cells as determined by inhibitory concentration (IC) values. Similar inhibitory effects were found for clonogenicity, while more pronounced inhibition of migration was observed in response to Rpx exposure. Profound arrest in S phases of the cell cycle was noted especially in primary CRC cells. Apoptotic effects were more prominent in rat CRC cells as indicated by Annexin V-FITC assay and Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining. Rpx exposure induced significantly increased levels of the IL24/MDA-7, a well characterized anticancer gene, in all CRC cells. In addition, following Rpx treatment, high expression levels of growth arrest and DNA damage (GADD family) genes were also observed. Increased expression of two additional GADD genes (34 and 153) only in rat CRC cells (CC531) conferred higher sensitivity towards Rpx and subsequent anti-proliferative/apoptotic effects as compared to human CRC cells (SW480 and SW620). The present investigation indicates the anticancer potential of Rpx in CRC and favor further evaluation of this natural compound as therapeutic agent.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26151662
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; TOXICITY ; MECHANISM ; IDENTIFICATION ; RAT-LIVER METASTASIS ; RICIN-A-CHAIN ; PLANTS ; TRADITIONAL MEDICINE ; XIMENIA-AMERICANA ; RNA N-GLYCOSIDASE
    Abstract: The development of new anticancer drugs is a salient problem and the traditional use of plants is a potentially rich source of information for detecting new molecules with antineoplastic activity. Riproximin is a recently detected cytotoxic type II ribosome inactivating protein with high selectivity for certain tumor cell lines. Its activity was recognized as the main component in a plant powder used by African healers for treating cancer. By ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase gene sequencing analysis, the powder was identified to be derived from the plant Ximenia americana. The cDNA sequence of riproximin was identified, the protein was modeled to contain one A- and a B-chain, respectively, and a reliable purification procedure from kernels of X. americana was established. Riproximin displays high but differential antiproliferative activity in a panel of human and rodent cancer cell lines, with concentrations inhibiting cell proliferation by 50% (IC50 values) that diverge by a factor of 100. Consistent antineoplastic activity was detected in colorectal and pancreatic cancer liver metastasis models in rats. The cytotoxic mechanism of action was determined to be based on cellular uptake of riproximin followed by its A-chain prompted depurination of the 28S ribosomal RNA and induction of unfolded protein response. Riproximin's specificity depended on its B-chain connected binding to cell surface glycans, the presence of which is crucial for subsequent internalization into cells and cytotoxicity. These N- and O-glycans include bi- and tri-antennary NA structures (NA2/NA3) as well as Tn3 structures (clustered Tn antigen). Riproximin was found to crosslink proteins with N- and O-glycan structure, thus indicating both types of binding sites on its B chain. Due to this crosslinking ability, riproximin is expected to show prominent cytotoxicity towards cells expressing both, NA2/NA3 and clustered Tn structures. Apart from the properties of riproximin, the plant X. americana has been known for some medical uses in traditional African medicine, including various types of infections.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24699434
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  • 7
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; TUMOR-CELLS ; TOXICITY ; ACTIVATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; FORM ; ASSAY ; CELL-DEATH ; ALKYLPHOSPHOCHOLINES ; ANTILEUKEMIC EFFICACY ; chemotherapy ; LIPID RAFTS ; cell lines ; N-TERMINAL KINASE ; CYTOTOXICITY ; cord blood ; multiple myeloma ; ONCOLOGY ; interaction ; erufosine ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA CELLS ; HUMAN LEUKEMIC-CELLS ; ANTICANCER ALKYLPHOSPHOLIPIDS ; Antimigratory activity ; Haematopoietic progenitors ; SELECTIVE APOPTOSIS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Erufosine is an i.v. injectable alkylphosphocholine which is active against various haematological malignancies in vitro. In the present study, its effects on multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines and on murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) were investigated. METHODS: The following MM cell lines were used: RPMI-8226, U-266 and OPM-2. The cytotoxicity of erufosine against these cell lines was determined by the MTT-dye reduction assay. Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and pAkt expression levels, activation of caspases, as well as cleavage of PARP, were studied by Western blotting. Migration was evaluated by a modified Boyden-chamber assay. The haematologic toxicity of erufosine was assessed using clonogenicity assays with normal HPCs of murine or human origin. RESULTS: Significant cytotoxic activity of erufosine against the MM cell lines was found. Comparison of the characteristics of erufosine-induced cell death in the three cell lines revealed a complex mode of action with apoptotic mechanisms prevailing in OPM-2 cells and non-apoptotic mechanisms prevailing in U-266 cells. The sensitivity of the MM cell lines to erufosine-induced apoptosis correlated inversely with the Bcl-X(L) expression level. Erufosine participated in synergistic interactions with various drugs. Furthermore, it showed potent migration-inhibiting activity in RPMI-8226 cells. Erufosine was not toxic to normal HPCs of murine or human origin and even stimulated progenitors from human umbilical cord blood to form granulocyte/macrophage colonies. Moreover, erufosine ameliorated the toxicity of bendamustine to murine HPCs. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data presented reveal that erufosine could have potential as an antimyeloma drug and deserves further development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20177898
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  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; LYMPHOCYTES ; TYROSINASE ; REGULATORY T-CELLS ; SUPPRESSOR-CELLS ; CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC-AGENTS
    Abstract: Chemotherapeutic agents such as paclitaxel applied in ultra-low, non-cytotoxic doses were previously shown to stimulate dendritic cell activity and anti-tumor immune responses upon vaccination in mouse transplantable tumor models. However, the mechanisms of these alterations-termed chemoimmunomodulation or chemomodulation-are still not clear. This study investigated the effect of paclitaxel applied in ultra-low, non-cytotoxic doses on the efficiency of immunization of healthy C57BL/6 mice with the peptide derived from tyrosinase related protein (TRP)-2 as a model melanoma antigen. Using an IFNgamma ELISPOT assay, it was found that administration of 1 mg paclitaxel/kg in combination with the peptide vaccination strongly increased the frequencies of TRP-2 specific spleen T-cells as compared to levels due to the vaccination alone. This was associated with a significant decrease in the levels of regulatory T-cells (T(reg)) and immature myeloid cells (known as a counterpart of myeloid derived suppressor cells [MDSC] in healthy mice). Such impairments of potential immunosuppressive cells were found to correlate with a strong increase in the amount of effector CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cells in the bone marrow and spleen. Furthermore, in paclitaxel-treated mice, a significant augmentation of natural killer (NK) cell numbers in the bone marrow and their ability to produce IFNgamma were observed. In addition, the level of NK-T-cells in the lymph nodes was also increased. It is suggested that paclitaxel applied in ultra-low, non-cytotoxic doses may potentially enhance the efficacy of anti-tumor vaccinations by neutralizing immunosuppressive T(reg) and MDSC populations in tumor-bearing hosts.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22449053
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