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  • METAANALYSIS  (37)
  • ASSOCIATION  (33)
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  • 1
    Keywords: ASSOCIATION ; ACID ; score ; PATTERNS ; WOMEN ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; FISH ; REGION ; DIET ; FAT ; INDIVIDUALS ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; FRUIT ; nutrition ; VEGETABLES ; HETEROGENEITY ; REGRESSION ; PRODUCTS ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; ADIPOSITY ; metabolic syndrome ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; BMI ; FOODS ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; DAIRY-PRODUCTS ; EPIC-OXFORD PARTICIPANTS ; WEIGHT-LOSS ; Abdominal ; ABDOMINAL ADIPOSITY ; ELDERLY-PEOPLE ; HEALTH-STATUS ; TO-HIP RATIO
    Abstract: Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific questionnaires, and anthropometrical measurements were collected using standardized procedures. The association between the degree of adherence to the modified-Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) (including high consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish and seafood, and unsaturated: saturated fatty acids ratio; moderate alcohol intake; and low consumption of meat and meat products and dairy products) and BMI (kg.m(-2)) or WC (cm was modeled through mixed-effects linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, the mMDS was not significantly associated with BMI. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower WC, for a given BMI, in both men (-0.09; 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04) and women (-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01). The association was stronger in men (-0.20; 95% CI -0.23 to -0.17) and women (-0.17; 95% CI -0.21 to -0.13) from Northern European countries. Despite the observed heterogeneity among regions, results of this study suggest that adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, high in foods of vegetable origin and unsaturated fatty acids, is associated with lower abdominal adiposity measured by WC in European men and women. J. Nutr. 139: 1728-1737, 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19571036
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; Germany ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; RISK-FACTORS ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; BREAST ; HEALTH ; NUMBER ; AGE ; WOMEN ; risk factors ; REQUIRES ; RISK FACTOR ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVES ; EPIC ; nutrition ; ENDOMETRIAL CANCER ; menopause ; ONCOLOGY ; LIFE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; ESTROGEN ; PREGNANCY ; BIRTH ; parity ; prospective ; menarche ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; OVARIAN ; CORPUS ; oral contraceptive
    Abstract: Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among the 302,618 women eligible for the study, 1,017 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in women with late menarche, early menopause, past OC use, high parity and a shorter time since last full-term pregnancy (FTP). No association was observed for duration of breast feeding after adjustment for number of FTP or for abortion (spontaneous or induced). After mutual adjustment, late age at menarche, early age at menopause and duration of OC use showed similar risk reductions of 7-8% per year of menstrual life, whereas the decreased risk associated with cumulative duration of FTPs was stronger (22% per year). In conclusion, our findings confirmed a reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan and, therefore, support an important role of hormonal mechanisms in endometrial carcinogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19924816
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; POPULATION ; INTERVENTION ; ASSOCIATION ; PATTERNS ; DESIGN ; ENERGY ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; DIET ; FAT ; BLOOD-PRESSURE ; ALCOHOL ; PROJECT ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; SMOKERS ; CALIBRATION ; MANAGEMENT ; physical activity ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; WEIGHT ; ENERGY-INTAKE ; LOW-CARBOHYDRATE ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; dietary patterns ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; prospective ; EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; WEIGHT CHANGE ; RANDOMIZED CLINICAL-TRIAL ; Lead ; Follow up ; weight gain ; OBESE ADULTS ; PLASMA LEPTIN ; PROTEIN DIET
    Abstract: Background: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. Objective: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. Design: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. Results: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximate to 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 398-407
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20592131
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  • 4
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; ASSOCIATION ; ENERGY ; OBESITY ; p53 ; nutrition ; insulin ; FATTY-ACID SYNTHASE ; METFORMIN
    Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensing/signalling intracellular protein which is activated by an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio after ATP depletion. Once activated, AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and the Akt-mTOR pathway, and activates the p53-p21 axis. All these molecular mechanisms are thought to play a key role in breast carcinogenesis. We investigated the genetic variability of four genes encoding AMPK (PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1 and PRKAB2). Using a tagging approach and selecting SNPs we covered all the common genetic variation of these genes. We tested association of tagging SNPs in our four candidate genes with breast cancer (BC) risk in a study of 1340 BC cases and 2536 controls nested into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Given the relevance of AMPK on fatty acid synthesis and the importance of body fatness as a BC risk factor, we tested association of SNPs and body-mass index as well. We observed no statistically significant association between the SNPs in the PRKAs genes and BC risk and BMI after correction for multiple testing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21116708
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  • 5
    Keywords: RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; colorectal cancer ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; NECK-CANCER ; EPIC PROJECT ; METAANALYSIS ; pooled analysis ; EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM ; GLOBAL BURDEN ; INTERNATIONAL HEAD
    Abstract: Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Participants 109 118 men and 254 870 women, mainly aged 37-70. Main outcome measures Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer. Results If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (-3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (-1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33 037 of 178 578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17 470 of 397 043 alcohol related cases in women. Conclusions In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21474525
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; LIFE-STYLE ; FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE ; COFFEE ; DRINKING-WATER ; RELATIVE VALIDITY ; FLUID ; LOWER URINARY-TRACT ; DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS ; urothelial cell carcinomas
    Abstract: Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95% CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20715171
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  • 7
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; WOMEN ; nutrition ; DETERMINANTS ; SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITIES ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ; LUNG-CANCER INCIDENCE ; EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITIES
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Socio-economic inequalities in mortality are observed at the country level in both North America and Europe. The purpose of this work is to investigate the contribution of specific risk factors to social inequalities in cause-specific mortality using a large multi-country cohort of Europeans. METHODS: A total of 3,456,689 person/years follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was analysed. Educational level of subjects coming from 9 European countries was recorded as proxy for socio-economic status (SES). Cox proportional hazard model's with a step-wise inclusion of explanatory variables were used to explore the association between SES and mortality; a Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated as measure of relative inequality. RESULTS: Total mortality among men with the highest education level is reduced by 43% compared to men with the lowest (HR 0.57, 95% C.I. 0.52-0.61); among women by 29% (HR 0.71, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.78). The risk reduction was attenuated by 7% in men and 3% in women by the introduction of smoking and to a lesser extent (2% in men and 3% in women) by introducing body mass index and additional explanatory variables (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake) (3% in men and 5% in women). Social inequalities were highly statistically significant for all causes of death examined in men. In women, social inequalities were less strong, but statistically significant for all causes of death except for cancer-related mortality and injuries. DISCUSSION: In this European study, substantial social inequalities in mortality among European men and women which cannot be fully explained away by accounting for known common risk factors for chronic diseases are reported.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22848347
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  • 8
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; POPULATION ; PATTERNS ; HEALTH ; nutrition ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; METAANALYSIS ; RECTAL CANCERS ; ADHERENCE ; EPIC cohort
    Abstract: The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score (MMDS) and the Centre-Specific MMDS (CSMMDS). Both scales share the same dietary components but differ in the cut-off values that were used for these components in the construction of the scales. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the associations of these scales with CRC incidence were estimated. After 5,296,617 person-years of follow-up, 4,355 incident CRC cases were identified. A decreased risk of CRC, of 8 and 11 % was estimated when comparing the highest (scores 6-9) with the lowest (scores 0-3) adherence to CSMMDS and MMDS respectively. For MMDS the HR was 0.89 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.99). A 2-unit increment in either Mediterranean scale was associated with a borderline statistically significant 3 to 4 % reduction in CRC risk (HR for MMDS: 0.96; 95 % CI: 0.92, 1.00). These associations were somewhat more evident, among women, were mainly manifested for colon cancer risk and their magnitude was not altered when alcohol was excluded from MMDS. These findings suggest that following a Mediterranean diet may have a modest beneficial effect on CRC risk.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23579425
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  • 9
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; COUNTRIES ; SWEDEN ; METAANALYSIS ; SUBTYPES ; LYMPHOHEMATOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; BENZENE EXPOSURE ; MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA ; INDUSTRY WORKERS ; CHEMISTS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Established risk factors for leukaemia do not explain the majority of leukaemia cases. Previous studies have suggested the importance of occupation and related exposures in leukaemogenesis. We evaluated possible associations between job title and selected hazardous agents and leukaemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: The mean follow-up time for 241 465 subjects was 11.20 years (SD 2.42 years). During the follow-up period, 477 incident cases of myeloid and lymphoid leukaemia occurred. Data on 52 occupations considered a priori to be at high risk of developing cancer were collected through standardised questionnaires. Occupational exposures were estimated by linking the reported occupations to a job exposure matrix. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between occupation and related exposures and risk of leukaemia. RESULTS: The risk of lymphoid leukaemia significantly increased for working in chemical laboratories (HR 8.35, 95% CI 1.58 to 44.24), while the risk of myeloid leukaemia increased for working in the shoe or other leather goods industry (HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.28 to 5.06). Exposure-specific analyses showed a non-significant increased risk of myeloid leukaemias for exposure to benzene (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.40; HR=1.60, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.69 for the low and high exposure categories, respectively). This association was present both for acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia at high exposure levels. However, numbers were too small to reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a possible role of occupational exposures in the development of both lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia. Exposure to benzene seemed to be associated with both acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23576671
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  • 10
    Keywords: AGE ; WOMEN ; ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; ASSOCIATIONS ; HEIGHT ; METAANALYSIS ; REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; menarche
    Abstract: Background: The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Methods: Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR-(n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. Results: A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR-tumors (= 35 vs. = 19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p(trend) 〈 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; = 35 vs. = 19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p(trend) = 0.96 for ER-PR-tumors; P-het = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (p(het) = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age-and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Conclusion: Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24321460
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