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  • ATTITUDES  (1)
  • CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: IMPLEMENTATION ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; ATTITUDES ; SECONDHAND SMOKE ; 4 COUNTRY SURVEY ; FREE BAR LAW ; FREE WORKPLACE LEGISLATION ; ITC NETHERLANDS SURVEY ; REPUBLIC-OF-IRELAND ; RESTAURANTS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Support for smoke-free policies increases over time and particularly after implementation of the policy. In this study we examined whether the comprehensiveness of such policies moderates the effect on support among smokers. METHODS: We analysed two waves (pre- and post-smoke-free legislation) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys in France, Germany, and the Netherlands, and two pre-legislation waves of the ITC surveys in UK as control. Of 6,903 baseline smokers, 4,945 (71.6%) could be followed up and were included in the analyses. Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to compare changes in support from pre- to post-legislation to the secular trend in the control country. Multiple logistic regression models were employed to identify predictors of individual change in support. Findings: In France, the comprehensive smoking ban was associated with sharp increases in support for a total smoking ban in drinking establishments and restaurants that were above secular trends. In Germany and the Netherlands, where smoke-free policies and compliance are especially deficient in drinking establishments, only support for a total smoking ban in restaurants increased above the secular trend. Notable prospective predictors of becoming supportive of smoking bans in these countries were higher awareness of cigarette smoke being dangerous to others and weekly visiting of restaurants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that smoke-free policies have the potential to improve support once the policy is in place. This effect seems to be most pronounced with comprehensive smoking bans, which thus might be the most valid option for policy-makers despite their potential for creating controversy and resistance in the beginning.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22294779
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  • 2
    Keywords: COUNTRIES ; SMOKERS ; INEQUALITIES ; ADULTS ; CESSATION ; INTERVENTIONS ; PRICE ; CIGARETTE WARNING LABELS ; REDUCE SMOKING ; EQUITY IMPACT
    Abstract: Introduction: The aim of the current study is to investigate trends and socioeconomic differences in policy triggers for thinking about quitting in six European countries. Methods: Data were derived from all available survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys (2003-2013). France conducted three survey waves (n = 1420-1735), Germany three waves (n = 515-1515), The Netherlands seven waves (n = 1420-1668), Ireland three waves (n = 582-1071), Scotland two waves (n = 461-507), and the rest of the United Kingdom conducted seven survey waves (n = 861-1737). Smokers were asked whether four different policies (cigarette price, smoking restrictions in public places, free or lower cost medication, and warning labels on cigarette packs) influenced them to think about quitting. Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated for each country. Results: Cigarette price was mentioned most often in all countries and across all waves as trigger for thinking about quitting. Mentioning cigarette price and warning labels increased after the implementation of price increases and warning labels in some countries, while mentioning smoking restrictions decreased after their implementation in four countries. All studied policy triggers were mentioned more often by smokers with low and/or moderate education and income than smokers with high education and income. The education and income differences did not change significantly over time for most policies and in most countries. Conclusions: Tobacco control policies work as a trigger to increase thoughts about quitting, particularly in smokers with low education and low income and therefore have the potential to reduce health inequalities in smoking.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26282108
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