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  • ACE inhibitors  (1)
  • Acetylcholine  (1)
  • Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)  (1)
  • Springer  (3)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (3)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Years
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Striatum ; Physostigmine ; Acetylcholine ; Mouth movements ; Oral behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cholinomimetic drugs are known to induce changes in perioral behavior in rodents, characterized primarily by “purposeless” chewing mevements, but little is known about their central sites of action. Using observational methods, the effects of direct microinfusion of a mixture of physostigmine and acetylcholine (PS/Ach, 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 μg of each in 0.5 μl saline) into the ventrolateral striatum (VLS) were assessed. Cholinergic stimulation of this region produced a dose-dependent induction of mouth movements, characterized by chewing movements, jaw opening and closing, tongue protrusions and jaw tremors. These movements were not directed toward any stimulus. In some rats, cholinergic stimulation of the VLS also induced stereotyped self-biting, although this effect was less prominent and of shorter duration. Induction of mouth movements by cholinergic stimulation of the VLS was blocked by prior administration of atropine, either systemically (50 mg/kg) or directly into the VLS (10 μg). Systemic administration of methylatropine (50 mg/kg) did not block the mouth movements. Pretreatment with haloperidol (2.5 μg into VLS) had no effect on PS/Ach-induced mouth movements. Infusion of PS/Ach (0, 2.5, 5.0 μg) into the dorsolateral or ventromedial striatum did not produce significant changes in oral behavior, although the level of mouth movements was somewhat higher at the medial site. The three sites studied were also differentiated with respect to spontaneous moto behaviors (locomotion and rearing) following direct cholinergic stimulation. These findings are considered as further evidence for the role of the ventrolateral striatum in oral motor behavior.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) ; platelet aggregation ; aldosterone ; whole blood ; ex-vivo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been shown to be present on human platelet membranes. We investigated the effect of an infusion of ANF 5 pmol·kg−1.min−1 on platelet aggregation in whole blood ex-vivo in 8 normal volunteers. Spontaneous platelet aggregation, collagen (0.6–2 μg·ml−1)-induced or ADP (0.5–2.0 μM)-induced aggregation was not affected by ANF. Plasma aldosterone was however significantly attenuated by ANF. These results show that a pharmacological dose of ANF does not affect platelet aggregation in man. These results suggest that the high plasma levels of ANF normally achieved in chronic heart failure or acute myocardial infarction are unlikely to contribute to the platelet hyperreactivity, often observed in these conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Key words Experimental diabetes ; Albuminuria ; Glomerular metabolism ; ACE inhibitors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical studies indicate a nephro-protective effect in conjunction with the use of ACE inhibitors. This study's aim was to determine whether ACE inhibitors influence the metabolism of glomerular cells in addition to their known hemodynamic effects. Streptozotocin diabetic rats were treated with lisinopril (DLis 1.5 mg/l water), or hydralazine (Dhyd, 50 mg/l water) over 4 weeks. Untreated diabetic rats (DC) and non-diabetic rats (C) served as controls. After four weeks of treatment, urinary excretion of albumin, blood pressure and metabolic control (Glyc-Hb) were measured. After treatment glomeruli were isolated and homogenized, and β-NAG and total proteolytic activity against azocasein were measured. Glycated hemoglobin levels were similar in all diabetic groups (DC, 12%, Dhyd, 10%; DLis 11%). Blood pressure of DLis rats (79 ± 3 mmHg) and DHyd rats (46 ± 2 mmHg) was lower than that of DC rats (111 ± 3 mmHg). Urinary albumin excretion of diabetic groups was lowest in DLis. Diabetic rats showed a decrease in glomerular β-NAG (10 vs. 60.5 U/g protein) and total proteolytic activity against azocasein (148 vs. 170 U/mg protein hour) compared to non-diabetic rats. Lisinopril increased β-NAG (30 vs. 14 U/g protein) and total proteolytic activity (160.5 vs. 141.5 U/mg protein hour) compared with hydralazine. Our study confirms that the nephro-protective effect of ACE inhibitors is partially due to modulatory effects on the metabolism of basement membrane proteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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