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  • Acetylcholine  (1)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)  (1)
  • Springer  (2)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (2)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Years
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Striatum ; Physostigmine ; Acetylcholine ; Mouth movements ; Oral behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cholinomimetic drugs are known to induce changes in perioral behavior in rodents, characterized primarily by “purposeless” chewing mevements, but little is known about their central sites of action. Using observational methods, the effects of direct microinfusion of a mixture of physostigmine and acetylcholine (PS/Ach, 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 μg of each in 0.5 μl saline) into the ventrolateral striatum (VLS) were assessed. Cholinergic stimulation of this region produced a dose-dependent induction of mouth movements, characterized by chewing movements, jaw opening and closing, tongue protrusions and jaw tremors. These movements were not directed toward any stimulus. In some rats, cholinergic stimulation of the VLS also induced stereotyped self-biting, although this effect was less prominent and of shorter duration. Induction of mouth movements by cholinergic stimulation of the VLS was blocked by prior administration of atropine, either systemically (50 mg/kg) or directly into the VLS (10 μg). Systemic administration of methylatropine (50 mg/kg) did not block the mouth movements. Pretreatment with haloperidol (2.5 μg into VLS) had no effect on PS/Ach-induced mouth movements. Infusion of PS/Ach (0, 2.5, 5.0 μg) into the dorsolateral or ventromedial striatum did not produce significant changes in oral behavior, although the level of mouth movements was somewhat higher at the medial site. The three sites studied were also differentiated with respect to spontaneous moto behaviors (locomotion and rearing) following direct cholinergic stimulation. These findings are considered as further evidence for the role of the ventrolateral striatum in oral motor behavior.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Pneumoconiosis ; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ; Disease models ; Animal macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract N-acetyl-beta(β)-D-glucosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme secreted by alveolar macrophages in response to phagocytosis of particulate material. Alveolar macrophages participate in the degradation and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue that results in pneumoconiosis. Known quantities of four characterized respirable dusts were bronchoscopically placed into the right caudal lung lobe of macaque monkeys. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from dust-exposed right lung and unexposed left lung of the same individuals at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks after dust instillation. The samples were tested for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity to determine if the enzyme levels could serve as an indicator of pulmonary injury induced by generic coal dusts when compared to known fibrogenic and nuisance dusts. Installation of generic quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dusts produced significant elevations of enzyme activity and increased numbers of macrophages in the dust-exposed lobes. Elevations in enzymatic activity and macrophage numbers were greatest in response to generic quartz dust. These results suggest that quantitative levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity may be a useful indicator of acute and chronic lung injury following exposure to fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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