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  • scavenger action  (2)
  • Activation-induced cell death (AICD)  (1)
  • Adaptation Psychopathometric Measuring  (1)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; NF-KAPPA-B ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; T cell activation ; T-CELLS ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS ; MITOCHONDRIA ; NADPH OXIDASE ; KINETICS ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE ; COMPLEX-I ; LYMPHOCYTE-ACTIVATION ; RECEPTOR STIMULATION ; reactive oxygen species (ROS) ; Activation-induced cell death (AICD) ; IL-2 and CD95L/FasL ; Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2)
    Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are indispensible for T cell activation-induced expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and CD95 ligand (CD95L, FasL/Apo-1L) genes, and in turn, for CD95L-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD). Here, we show that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD/SOD2), a major mitochondrial antioxidative enzyme, constitutes an important control switch in the process of activation-induced oxidative signal generation in T cells. Analysis of the kinetics of T cell receptor (TCR)-triggered ROS production revealed a temporal association between higher MnSOD abundance/activity and a shut-down phase of oxidative signal generation. Transient or inducible MnSOD overexpression abrogated T cell activation-triggered mitochondrial ROS production as well as NF-kappaB- and AP-1-mediated transcription. Consequently, lowered expression of IL-2 and CD95L genes resulted in decreased IL-2 secretion and CD95L-dependent AICD. Moreover, upregulation of the mitochondrial MnSOD level is dependent on oxidation-sensitive transcription and not on the increase of mitochondrial mass. Thus, MnSOD-mediated negative feedback regulation of activation-induced mitochondrial ROS generation exemplifies a process of retrograde mitochondria-to-nucleus communication. Our finding underlines the critical role for MnSOD and mitochondria in the regulation of human T cell activation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22429591
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: “Durchgangs-Syndrom” ; Intellectual Disorder ; “Syndrom-Test” (Böcker) ; Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Hawie) ; Adaptation Psychopathometric Measuring ; Statistical Revision ; Durchgangs-Syndrom ; Intelligenzstörungen ; Syndromtest Böcker ; Hamburg Wechsler Intelligenztest Hawie ; Hawie als psychopathometrisches Verfahren ; Statistischer Vergleich
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Wir untersuchten das Intelligenzverhalten während des Durchgangs-Syndroms (H. H. Wieck). Dazu wurden der von F. Böcker entwickelte Syndrom-Test und der von D. Wechsler beschriebene Intelligenztest in seiner deutschen Bearbeitung (Hawie) eingesetzt. Die statistische Bearbeitung des Materials ergab überindividuelle Charakteristica der gestörten Intelligenzfunktionen. Der zu psychomelrischen Zwecken konzipierte Hawie läßt sich bei nur geringfügiger Modifizierung der Methode auch als psychopathometrischer Test durchführen. Seine Ergebnisse müssen in quantitativer wie in qualitativer Hinsicht ausgewertet werden. Sie bieten dann wertvolle Hinweise auf das geistig-seelische Zustandsbild des Kranken. Die Punkteskalen von Syndrom-Test und Hawie sind qualitativ nicht ganz kongruent; sie divergieren in Richtung auf die schwereren Syndromstandien. Die Intelligenzstörungen werden mit zunehmender Funktionspsychose zunächst stärker, sind also scheinbar progredient. Sie bleiben aber rückbildungsfähig. Der Verlust an quantitativ meßbarer Intelligenzleistung wird mit der vorgenannten Einschränkung im Verlauf des reversiblen Syndroms gleichmäßig und parallel der übrigen Symptomatik kleiner. Gleiches gilt für die Teilbereiche verbaler und praktischer Intelligenz. Allerdings verhalten sich die Funktionsgruppen unterschiedlich während leichter und schwerer Psychoseprägung. Störungen erscheinen bei der verbalen später als bei der nichtverbalen Intelligenz. Ein verbales Leistungsminimum wird dagegen eher erreicht. Stark differenziert ist die Entwicklung umgrenzter intellektueller Prozesse in Form der Subtests gegenüber verschiedenen Syndromstadien. Mit zunehmender Psychose fällt die Einheit des intellektuellen Leistungsniveaus auseinander, die dem General-Faktor der Intelligenz nach C. Spearman entspricht. Die verschiedenen faktoriellen Entitäten geben dem Angriff funktionspsychotischer Störungen unterschiedlich nach.
    Notes: Summary In order to explore intelligence behaviour in the course of “Durchgangs-Syndrom” (H. H. Wieck), 30 patients were examined using the “Syndrom-Test” of F. Böcker and the German revision of the Wechsler Bellevue intelligence scale (Hawie). The statistical evaluation showed unusual characteristics of deterioration of intelligence. The Wechsler Bellevue intelligence scale (German revision Hawie) can by slight modifications easily be adapted for psychopathometric inquiry. The results are to be evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively, thus revealing valuable information about the actual mental state. The scales of “Syndrom-Test” and “Hawie” diverge towards severe grades of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”. Deterioration of intelligence seems to progress with increasing “Function-Psychosis” (H. H. Wieck) and vice-versa. IQ as well as certain verbal and nonverbal functions of intelligence are reduced parallel to all other symptoms of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”. Behavior of various mental function groups differs in light and severe grades of psychosis. Verbal intelligence efficiency is affected more and earlier than non-verbal intelligence. Wide differences result in the subtests of “Hawie” in the course of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”. In increasing organic psychosis the entity of intellectual efficiency gets lost, i.e. g-factor of C. Spearman decreases. Special factors differ in resistance to functional disturbances of “Durchgangs-Syndrom”.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: regional myocardial ischemia ; lipid peroxidation ; scavenger action
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Dog experiments were performed to describe the time course of lipid peroxidation after various ischemic influences of the heart measured by formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the scavenger action determined by reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Experimental groups consisted of control dogs having intact hearts and dogs with acute ramus descendens anterior ligature (LAD) having ischemic areas through 15, 30, 45 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 24 hours. Heart tissue for biochemical assays was excised from both the ischemic areas and from nonischemic left ventricle. The acute ischemia caused characteristic alterations in the biochemical parameters: MDA level gradually increased with its peak value being found at the end of 3 hours ligature. GSH levels decreased moderately, whereas SOD levels reduced sharply. As incrcased MDA formation indicates breakdown of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the membranes and decreaased GSH and SOD levels indicate impairment of the natural scavengering, the observed changes clearly outline the extent of disintegration of membrane structure and function.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: myocardial infarct ; lipid peroxidation ; free oxygen radicals ; scavenger action ; synthetic antioxidant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experiments were performed on dog hearts following coronary ligation and treatment with synthetic antioxidant of dihydroquinoline type. Experimental groups were: (i) control dogs, (ii) dogs with ligation of descendens anterior coronary branch, (iii) coronary ligated dogs with antioxidant pretreatment and (iv) dogs with coronary ligation and simultaneous antioxidant infusion therapy. The heart infarctionper se is accompanied by the disintegration of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed by increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and the impairment of natural scavenging characterized by the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The oral pretreatment with antioxidant for 8 days prevented or decreased the unfavourable pathobiochemical responses. The acute infusion therapy exerted no immediate protection, nonetheless, it could decrease the severity of pathological signs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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