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    Publication Date: 2011-09-10
    Description: Our goal is to develop a vaccine that sustainably prevents Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria in 〉/=80% of recipients. Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ) administered by mosquito bites are the only immunogens shown to induce such protection in humans. Such protection is thought to be mediated by CD8(+) T cells in the liver that secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We report that purified irradiated PfSPZ administered to 80 volunteers by needle inoculation in the skin was safe, but suboptimally immunogenic and protective. Animal studies demonstrated that intravenous immunization was critical for inducing a high frequency of PfSPZ-specific CD8(+), IFN-gamma-producing T cells in the liver (nonhuman primates, mice) and conferring protection (mice). Our results suggest that intravenous administration of this vaccine will lead to the prevention of infection with Pf malaria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Epstein, J E -- Tewari, K -- Lyke, K E -- Sim, B K L -- Billingsley, P F -- Laurens, M B -- Gunasekera, A -- Chakravarty, S -- James, E R -- Sedegah, M -- Richman, A -- Velmurugan, S -- Reyes, S -- Li, M -- Tucker, K -- Ahumada, A -- Ruben, A J -- Li, T -- Stafford, R -- Eappen, A G -- Tamminga, C -- Bennett, J W -- Ockenhouse, C F -- Murphy, J R -- Komisar, J -- Thomas, N -- Loyevsky, M -- Birkett, A -- Plowe, C V -- Loucq, C -- Edelman, R -- Richie, T L -- Seder, R A -- Hoffman, S L -- 5R44AI055229-07/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5R44AI058375-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- 5R44AI058499-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 28;334(6055):475-80. doi: 10.1126/science.1211548. Epub 2011 Sep 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U.S. Military Malaria Vaccine Program, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903775" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Animals ; Antibodies, Protozoan/blood/immunology ; Antigens, Protozoan/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Humans ; Injections, Intravenous ; Injections, Subcutaneous ; Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis/immunology ; Liver/*immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Malaria Vaccines/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*immunology ; Malaria, Falciparum/*prevention & control ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Plasmodium falciparum/*immunology ; Rabbits ; Sporozoites/*immunology ; Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage/adverse effects/immunology ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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