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  • Air Microbiology  (2)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2)
  • BMJ Publishing Group
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus can cause morbidity and mortality in humans but thus far has not acquired the ability to be transmitted by aerosol or respiratory droplet ("airborne transmission") between humans. To address the concern that the virus could acquire this ability under natural conditions, we genetically modified A/H5N1 virus by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent serial passage in ferrets. The genetically modified A/H5N1 virus acquired mutations during passage in ferrets, ultimately becoming airborne transmissible in ferrets. None of the recipient ferrets died after airborne infection with the mutant A/H5N1 viruses. Four amino acid substitutions in the host receptor-binding protein hemagglutinin, and one in the polymerase complex protein basic polymerase 2, were consistently present in airborne-transmitted viruses. The transmissible viruses were sensitive to the antiviral drug oseltamivir and reacted well with antisera raised against H5 influenza vaccine strains. Thus, avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses can acquire the capacity for airborne transmission between mammals without recombination in an intermediate host and therefore constitute a risk for human pandemic influenza.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Herfst, Sander -- Schrauwen, Eefje J A -- Linster, Martin -- Chutinimitkul, Salin -- de Wit, Emmie -- Munster, Vincent J -- Sorrell, Erin M -- Bestebroer, Theo M -- Burke, David F -- Smith, Derek J -- Rimmelzwaan, Guus F -- Osterhaus, Albert D M E -- Fouchier, Ron A M -- DP1-OD000490-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 22;336(6088):1534-41. doi: 10.1126/science.1213362.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723413" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Air Microbiology ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Antiviral Agents/pharmacology ; Containment of Biohazards ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; *Ferrets ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza ; Virus/chemistry/genetics/immunology/metabolism ; Humans ; Immune Sera ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/drug effects/*genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Influenza in Birds/epidemiology/virology ; Influenza, Human/epidemiology/transmission/*virology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Mutation ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission/*virology ; Oseltamivir/pharmacology ; Pandemics ; Poultry ; RNA Replicase/chemistry/genetics ; Reassortant Viruses/pathogenicity ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Respiratory System/*virology ; Reverse Genetics ; Serial Passage ; Sialic Acids/metabolism ; Viral Proteins/chemistry/genetics ; Virulence ; Virus Replication ; Virus Shedding
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: Avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses pose a pandemic threat. As few as five amino acid substitutions, or four with reassortment, might be sufficient for mammal-to-mammal transmission through respiratory droplets. From surveillance data, we found that two of these substitutions are common in A/H5N1 viruses, and thus, some viruses might require only three additional substitutions to become transmissible via respiratory droplets between mammals. We used a mathematical model of within-host virus evolution to study factors that could increase and decrease the probability of the remaining substitutions evolving after the virus has infected a mammalian host. These factors, combined with the presence of some of these substitutions in circulating strains, make a virus evolving in nature a potentially serious threat. These results highlight critical areas in which more data are needed for assessing, and potentially averting, this threat.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426314/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426314/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Russell, Colin A -- Fonville, Judith M -- Brown, Andre E X -- Burke, David F -- Smith, David L -- James, Sarah L -- Herfst, Sander -- van Boheemen, Sander -- Linster, Martin -- Schrauwen, Eefje J -- Katzelnick, Leah -- Mosterin, Ana -- Kuiken, Thijs -- Maher, Eileen -- Neumann, Gabriele -- Osterhaus, Albert D M E -- Kawaoka, Yoshihiro -- Fouchier, Ron A M -- Smith, Derek J -- DP1 OD000490/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1-OD000490-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN266200700010C/PHS HHS/ -- R01 AI 069274/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI069274/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 22;336(6088):1541-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1222526.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723414" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Air Microbiology ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Birds ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genetic Fitness ; Glycosylation ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/*genetics/metabolism ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/*genetics/*pathogenicity ; Influenza in Birds/virology ; Influenza, Human/immunology/transmission/*virology ; Mammals ; Models, Biological ; Mutation ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/transmission/*virology ; Probability ; RNA Replicase/*genetics ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Respiratory System/*virology ; Selection, Genetic ; Sialic Acids/metabolism ; Viral Proteins/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Signatur Availability
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