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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Soluble NAD-reducing hydrogenase ; Membrane-bound hydrogenase ; Diaphorase ; Rhodococcus opacus 1b ; Alcaligenes eutrophus H16
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Six new strains of Alcaligenes enriched for and isolated as nickel-resistant bacteria resemble Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 and contain both an NAD-reducing, tetrameric soluble hydrogenase and a membrane-bound hydrogenase. None of the soluble hydrogenases share with the Rhodococcus opacus MR11 enzyme tetramer the property of being cleaved easily into two dimeric moieties [a hydrogenase (βδ) and an NADH:acceptor oxidoreductase (αγ)], in the absence of nickel or at low ionic strength. The soluble hydrogenase of the newly isolated strain MR22 of R. opacus equalled that of strain MR11. The absence of a membrane-bound hydrogenase in Alcaligenes denitrificans strain 4a-2 and in Alcaligenes ruhlandii was confirmed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: R-Bodies ; Kappa particles ; Free-living hydrogen bacteria ; Induction ; Electron microscopy ; Chemical composition ; Defective prophages ; Plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract R-Bodies have been found in a recently isolated pseudomonas-like free-living hydrogen oxidizing bacterium. Their isolation, fine structure and chemical composition are described and compared with the R-bodies from the kappa particles (Caedobacter), obligate endosymbionts of Paramecium aurelia. The 2K 1 R-bodies exhibited essential characteristics of the kappa R-bodies; however, their size and some other structural aspects proved that they represent a new type of R-bodies. The presence of phage tail-like particles in cells induced with Mitomycin C is in favour of the hypothesis that the R-bodies might be coded by defective prophages, or by extrachromosomal elements.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 ; Auxotrophic Mutants ; Phenylalanine-Tyrosine Biosynthesis ; Accumulation of Prephenic and Chorismic Acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 1. Mutants derived from the hydrogen bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 auxotrophic for phenylalanine and tyrosine were isolated employing mutagenic agents (EMS, nitrite), the colistine counterselection technique and the “pin-point” isolation method. Three different types of mutants were found: (1) Mutants, requiring phenylalanine or phenylpyruvate for growth, were affected in chorismate mutase as well as prephenate dehydratase. Both activities were regained by reversion to prototrophy. The auxotrophic strains accumulated chorismic acid. (2) Strains with a growth response similar to that of the first group lacked only prephenate dehydratase activity which was partially regained by reversion. Chorismate mutase and prephenate dehydrogenase were derepressed up to two-fold. Mutants grown in minimal medium excreted prephenic acid. (3) The third type of mutants required phenylalanine or phenylpyruvate and grew slowly when supplemented with chorismate or prephenate. The enzymes involved in the specific pathway of phenylalanine and tyrosine were found to be present. Some of them were even more active than in the wild-type. 2. Mutants accumulating chorismic acid or prephenic acid were able to grow on minimal medium when incubated long enough. The chemical instability of the excretion products resulted in their nonenzymatic conversion to subsequent intermediates which were taken up by the cells, allowing growth. 3. A method is described for preparing barium prephenate using the auxotrophic mutant 6B-1 derived from A. eutrophus H16. Prephenic acid, excreted by this strain, was obtained from the culture filtrate with a purity of at least 70% and a yield of approximately 180 mg per 2 l of medium.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aquaspirillum autotrophicum ; Hydrogen bacterium ; Growth ; Chemolithoautotrophy ; Particulate hydrogenase ; Induction ; Repression ; Natural habitats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Aquaspirillum autrotrophicum, an aerobic hydrogen bacterium recently isolated from an eutrophic freshwater lake, was characterized physiologically. It grew autotrophically in a fermenter with a doubling time of 4 h. Heterotrophic growth was faster. pH-Optimum ranged from 5.0–7.5, temperature optimum was about 28° C. During autotrophic growth about 10 moles hydrogen were consumed per 1 mole carbon dioxide fixed. Hydrogenase activity is inducible. CO2 did not enhance the oxy-hydrogen reaction by intact cells. The hydrogenase activity was localized in the particulate fraction. The hydrogenase reduced methylene blue and phenazine methosulfate; pyridine nucleotides were not reduced. In cell-free extracts, hydrogenase was sensitive to oxygen. Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was present in autotrophically-grown cells and absent from heterotrophically grown cells. Hydrogenase induction in heterotrophically-grown cells followed parabolic kinetics. Oxygen and D-gluconate repressed hydrogenase synthesis, whereas citrate, DL-lactate and pyruvate stimulated its formation. The repressive effect was delayed. The results suggest that the control of hydrogenase synthesis occurred at the transcriptional level, and that mRNA coding for the hydrogenase had a relatively long life span. D-Gluconate was degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the enzymes of which were constitutively formed. Enzymes of the pentosephosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathways (except phosphofructokinase) were present, too. Hydrogen did not inhibit heterotrophic growth. The possible competitive advantage of the physiological properties described with regard to the natural habitat was discussed.
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