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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 1995 (1995), S. 667-671 
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines, bis(trimethylsilyl)amino-substituted ; Hydrogenolysis ; Deprotonation ; Alkylation ; Deuteration ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 1,2-Oxazine 1 was converted into an unusual condensation product 5 by treatment with tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride. The hydrogenolysis of 1 with Pd/C as catalyst provided the expected primary amine 9, whereas the same reaction with the ethoxycarbonyl-substituted 1,2-oxazine 2 as starting material gave the 4-methylproline derivative 10 after N-protection. Deprotonation at C-4 of 1 required rather harsh conditions but cleanly afforded the corresponding lithiated intermediate 11. Treatment of 11 with electrophiles provided the C-4-substituted derivatives 12-16 in good to moderate yield, but generally with very high diastereoselectivity. The overall substitution process preferentially occurs with retention of configuration which is explained by assuming ion pair structure B for intermediate 11.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Aziridines ; Hydride reagents ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 6H-1,2-Oxazines 1 and 3 are converted into aziridines 2 and 4, respectively, by reduction with LiAlH4. Reduction of 1,2-oxazine 5 lacking the 6-alkoxy substituent leads to phenyl ketone 6, 6-Alkoxy-substituted 1,2-oxazine-3-carboxylates 7, 9, and 11 are reduced with NaBH4 to give the corresponding 3-hydroxymethylated compounds 8, 10, and 12 in good yields.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Oximes ; Pyrrolidines, 1-hydroxy- ; Beckmann rearrangement, reductive ; Hydrogenolysis, catalytic ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 6-Siloxy-substituted 1,2-oxazines 1 are transformed into 4-hydroxy ketoximes 2 by reduction with NaBH4 in ethanol. Reductive Beckmann rearrangement converts the oxime 2a into the 1,4-amino alcohol 7. Diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH) induces a novel reductive ring contraction of 1 to provide either N-hydroxypyrrolidine derivatives 8 or nitrones 9. Other 1,2-oxazines lacking the 6-siloxy substituent are also studied under these reaction conditions. Catalytic hydrogenolysis either gives the acyclic amine 16 or it stops at the stage of the proline derivative 21. Mechanistic features of these synthetically valuable transformations are discussed.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Deprotonation, stereoselective ; Substitution with retention of configuration ; Ring opening, reductive ; Amino alcohols ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 6-(trimethylsilyl)methyl-substituted 1,2-oxazine 1 can smoothly be deprotonated with n-butyllithium at C-4 to give a lithiated species which reacts with a variety of electrophiles to provide the new 1,2-oxazines 5 - 16 in good yields. Besides the preparative aspect of these transformations, the high stereoselectivity of many reactions is also interesting from a mechanistic point of view. By deprotonation of the 4-deuterated compound 5a it has been proven that n-butyllithium removes exclusively the proton (or deuteron) cis to the 6-CH2SiMe3 group. Also, in most cases the reaction of lithiated 1 with electrophiles occurs with overall retention of configuration to afford preferentially cis-1,2-oxazines (series a). A mechanistic proposal for this highly stereoselective deprotonation process, which seems to be governed by the 1,2-oxazine oxygen, is discussed including a comparison with a recently reported ab initio calculation dealing with oxime ethers. Similar deprotonation/substitution reactions are described for 1,2-oxazines 14, 2, 3, and 4. Possibly due to a differing carbanion structure a deviating behavior is observed in some cases. Several acidinduced and reductive ring-opening reactions of 1, 6a, 8a, and 14a demonstrate the potential of 4-substituted 1,2-oxazines for the stereoselective synthesis of polyfunctionalized compounds.
    Additional Material: 11 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Hydrogenation, catalytic ; Amino alcohols ; γ-Amino acids ; Pyrroles ; γ-Lactams ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: While palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 3-phenyl-6H-1,2-oxazine 1 produces primary amine 5 in a nitrogen-transposition reaction, the reductions of the related 1,2-oxazines 2, 10, and the 1,2-oxazin-6-one 3 afford the expected amino alcohols 4, 11, and the γ-amino acid 6, respectively, with low diastereoselectivites. In the presence of acetic acid 3 is reductively converted into γ-keto carboxylic acid 9 and 1 into the γ-lactam derivative 12 probably by a ring contraction to a nitrone intermediate. Raney nickel as the catalyst is able to transform 1,2-oxazine 7 bearing an exo-methylene unit into 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 13. The reaction of 6H-1,2-oxazine 1 with aluminium amalgam produces pyrrole 14 in moderate yield. Treatment of 1 with sodium in 2-propanol brings about its transformation into pyrrolidine derivative 15 together with pyrrole 14 and amino alcohol 4 as minor products. The chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity of these reductions are discussed including mechanistic proposals for the multistep processes involved.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Bromination, radical ; SN2 reaction ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 5,6-Dihydro-4H-1,2-oxazines 1a-b, 2, and 3 are easily brominated at C-4 with N-bromosuccinimide/dibenzoyl peroxide in tetrachloromethane. The bromo substituent is incorporated with surprisingly high diastereoselectivity trans to the substituent at C-6. 4-Bromo-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,2-oxazines are useful reagents for substitution reactions with N-nucleophiles such as primary amines and azide ions. Inversion of configuration at C-4 provides derivatives of 4-amino-1,2-oxazines with uniform relative configuration. As a minor byproduct the dibromo adduct 7 is obtained by bromination of 3. The dehydrohalogenation of this compound allows the synthesis of the 4-bromo-6H-1,2-oxazine 12. The presented reaction sequence thus constitutes an “umpolung” reaction that allows the introduction of nucleophiles into a position of the oxazine ring that so far was accessible only for electrophiles. The diastereoselectivity of the bromination reaction is discussed.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Hetero Diels-Alder reactions ; Nitroso alkene cycloaddition ; exo: endo Selectivity ; Stereospecificity ; Silyl enol ethers, relative reactivity of ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mechanism of the hetero Diels-Alder reaction of nitroso alkenes 2 with silyl enol ethers and other olefins has been investigated. Using the bicyclic nitroso compound 2a a study of the exo/endo selectivity has demonstrated that the exo approach is preferred with the siloxyethene l a as dienophile. On the other hand, the siloxycyclopentene 1 c gives a mixture of cycloadducts 3 c with an excess of endo product (endo: exo = 82: 18). The stereospecificity of the nitroso alkene cycloaddition could be demonstrated with the stereochemically homogeneous silyl enol ethers 1 b and 1 d. Experiments with enol ethers 1 f and 1 g also occur stereospecifically. α-Nitrosostyrene 2b reveals surprisingly high kE/Z values when E/Z-isomeric olefins are compared in competition experiments. Also, a detailed reactivity scale of 2b including various structurally different silyl enol ethers and other typical dienophiles shows that a complex interplay of electronic and steric effects is operating. The large influence of steric effects is taken as evidence for a highly ordered transition state in the cycloaddition. All mechanistic details for the Diels-Alder reactions of nitroso alkenes 2 with (silyl) enol ethers are in strong accord with a concerted mechanism and exclude the involvement of zwitterions or diradicals as intermediates.
    Additional Material: 7 Tab.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines, lithiated ; Deprotonation ; Alkylation ; Deuteration ; Regioselectivity ; Calculations, MNDO ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 5,6-Dihydro-5-methylene-4H-1,2-oxazine 1 is smoothly converted by n-butyllithium into 1-Li which reacts with electrophiles such as D2O, carbonyl compounds, dimethyl sulfide, or an azo diester to give the γ-adducts 4a-4f. On the other hand, alkylation of 1-Li occurs exclusively at C-4 of the heterocycle and provides the α-adducts 3g and 3h. These reactions require the activation of 1-Li by tetramethylethylenediamine. Treatment with allyl bromide and methyl acrylate affords mixtures of regioisomers 3 and 4. 1,2-Oxazine 5 with a conjugated C = C bond is less acidic than 1 but is also converted into 1-Li, whilst compound 6, lacking the 6-methoxy group, is not deprotonated under standard conditions. The dianion of 1,2-oxazine 7 is generated by employing an excess of n-butyllithium. This dianion displays a similar regiochemical behavior as 1-Li. Deuterium is exclusively incorporated into the γ-position to give product 8, while methylation occurs at C-4 to produce 9. 1,2-Oxazine 3g with an additional 4-methyl group can also be metalated and affords γ-adducts 10 and 11 upon reaction with D2O or acetone. Treatment with methyl iodide gives a 3:1 mixture of regioisomers 12 and 13. Deuteration of 1,2-oxazines 14 and 16 bearing a 3-CF3 or 3-CO2Et substituent requires more severe deprotonation conditions to provide the γ-adducts 15 and 17 in moderate yields. MNDO calculations of neutral 1,2-oxazines, the corresponding carbanions, and the lithium compounds allow an insight into the structure and charge distribution of these species, and also an estimation of the relative acidities. The regioselectivity of reactions of 1-Li is discussed on the basis of these semiempirical calculations and comparison with related ambident nucleophiles.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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