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  • Alzheimer's disease  (1)
  • Blood pressure  (1)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)  (1)
  • Springer  (3)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (3)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Years
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Apnoea testing ; Brain death ; Blood pressure ; Heart rate ; Cardiovascular changes ; Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring ; CO2 insufflation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To determine changes of blood pressure and heart rate during apnoea testing for brain death without (A) and with (B) artificial CO2 augmentation. Design: Prospective, consecutive study. Setting: 12 intensive care units in six towns in Northern Bavaria. Patients and participants: A total of 55 apnoea tests were performed on 55 consecutive patients as part of the determination of brain death, 27 without and 28 with CO2 augmentation. Interventions: Apnoea tests following oxygenation with 100 % O2 either after reduction of ventilatory volume (A) or after insufflation of CO2 during normoventilation (B). In each case, an arterial partial CO2 pressure of at least 8 kPa was documented. Results: All apnoea tests were without serious adverse effects (hypoxia, newly induced cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac asystole). An increased dopamine infusion rate was deemed necessary in only one case of group (A) because of marked systolic hypotension ( 〈 8 kPa). Individual variation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) did not exceed + 62 to –46 % and + 49 to –52 % respectively, in group (A) and + 35 to –57 % and + 40 to –48 % respectively, in group (B). Variation of heart rate (HR) remained within the range + 24 to –31 % in group (A) and + 37 to –22 % in group (B). Conclusions: HR varied less than BP. The possibility of a marked relative rise or fall of BP in group (A) was equal; in group (B) there was a lower chance of rising BP. The chances for a rise or fall in HR were equal for the two groups. There was a tendency for less variation of cardiovascular parameters in group (B).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Pneumoconiosis ; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ; Disease models ; Animal macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract N-acetyl-beta(β)-D-glucosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme secreted by alveolar macrophages in response to phagocytosis of particulate material. Alveolar macrophages participate in the degradation and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue that results in pneumoconiosis. Known quantities of four characterized respirable dusts were bronchoscopically placed into the right caudal lung lobe of macaque monkeys. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from dust-exposed right lung and unexposed left lung of the same individuals at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks after dust instillation. The samples were tested for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity to determine if the enzyme levels could serve as an indicator of pulmonary injury induced by generic coal dusts when compared to known fibrogenic and nuisance dusts. Installation of generic quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dusts produced significant elevations of enzyme activity and increased numbers of macrophages in the dust-exposed lobes. Elevations in enzymatic activity and macrophage numbers were greatest in response to generic quartz dust. These results suggest that quantitative levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity may be a useful indicator of acute and chronic lung injury following exposure to fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Dementia ; neuroimaging ; Alzheimer's disease ; computer assisted tomography ; magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Structural neuroimaging and dementia are conceptually different being only loosely correlated. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can never “prove” a clinical syndrome such as dementia, but yield clues as to its cause and the site and extent of pathological changes. Conversely, the type and degree of intellectual deterioration can hardly predict neuroradiological findings. The value of structural neuroimaging lies in detecting or excluding possible causes of dementia and quantifying linear or volumetric parameters of tissue and fluid volume. If based on a presumed or established etiology, however, specific neuropsychological and dementia syndromes may correspond to focal pathological changes seen in well-defined cerebral areas as recent investigations have shown with hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's dementia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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