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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: Electron-attracting groups ; Electron-donating groups ; Hydrophobicity ; Amiloride ; Cimetidine ; N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to evaluate whether N-containing substrates interact with the organic “anion” (p-aminohippurate, PAH) or only with the organic “cation” (N 1-methylnicotinamide, NMeN) transport system or with both, the stop-flow peritubular capillary microperfusion method was applied in the rat kidney in situ and the apparent K i values of several classes or organic substrate against contraluminal NMeN and PAH transport were determined. Organic “anion” and organic “cation” transport are in inverted commas because neither transporter sees the degree of ionization in bulk solution, and they also accept nonionizable substrates [Ullrich KJ, Rumrich G (1992) Pflügers Arch 421:286–288]. Amines must be sufficiently hydrophobic (phenylethylamine, piperidine, piperazine) in order to interact with NMeN transport. Additional Cl, Br, NO2 or other electronegative groups render them inhibitory towards PAH transport also. Such bisubstrate amines were identified as follows: metoclopramide, bromopride, diphenhydramine, bromodiphenhydramine, verapamil, citalopram, ketamine, mefloquine, ipsapirone, buspirone, trazodone, H7 and trifluoperazine. Imidazole analogues interact with both transporters if they bear sufficiently hydrophobic alkyl or aryl groups or electronegative sidegroups. Bisubstrate imidazole analogues are tinidazole, pilocarpine, clonidine, azidoclonidine and cimetidine. Pyridines and thiazoles interact with the NMeN transporter if they have an additional ring-attached NH2 group. Again with an additional Cl, Br, or NO2 group the aminopyridines and aminothiazoles also become inhibitors for the PAH transporter. Amongst the guanidines only substances with several electronegative side-groups such as guanfacine, amiloride, benzylamiloride and ranitidine, interact with both transporters. Amongst the phenylhydrazines only 4-bromophenylhydrazine interacts with the NMeN transporter and 4-nitrophenylhydrazine with both transporters. Quinoline (isoquinoline) and its amino and hydroxy analogues interact with both transporters, their pKa values correlate directly with the affinity to the NMeN transporter and reciprocally with their affinity to the PAH transporter. In experiments with labelled substrates only the sufficiently hydrophilic cimetidine, amiloride and ranitidine show a saturable transport, which can be inhibited by probenecid (apalcillin) and tetraethylammonium in an additive manner. The highly hydrophobic substrates verapamil, citalopram, imipramine, diltiazem and clonidine enter the cell very fast in an unsaturable and uninhibitable manner, apparently in the undissociated form, since N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, which — disregarding its ionization — is similarly hydrophobic, shows a transport behaviour similar to that of tetraethylammonium [Ullrich et al. (1991) Pflügers Arch 419:84–92]. Ethidium bromide and dimidium bromide, which have a permanent cationic quaternary nitrogen and two sufficiently electronegative NH2 groups, also interact with both transporters. The data indicate that a molecule qualifies as a bisubstrate if it carries both the essentials for organic anion (PAH) transport: hydrophobicity, sufficient acidity or electron-attracting O, OH, Cl, Br, NO2 groups, plus the essentials for organic cation transport: hydrophobicity, sufficient basicity or electron-donating N-containing groups. The nitrogen atoms in the N-containing molecules quinoline (pK a 4.9), isoquinoline (pK a 5.4) and benzylpyridine (pK a 5.13) are of such low basicity that they apparently can also interact with the PAH transporter. Apparent hydrophobicity (disregarding ionization) determines interaction with the transporters, while real hydrophobicity [log (octanol distribution values)] determines the diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2013
    Keywords: N-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+) ; N 1-Methylnicotinamide ; Tetraethylammonium (TEA+) ; Choline ; Amiloride ; Cortisol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The efflux of radiolabelled organic cations from the tubular lumen into proximal tubular cells was investigated by using the stop-flow microperfusion method. The efflux rate increased in the sequence: N 1-methylnicotinamide (NMeN+) 〈 cimetidine 〈 tetraethylammonium (TEA+) 〈 N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Preloading the animals by i.v. infusion or pre perfusion of the peritubular capillaries with NMeN+ increased the efflux rate of MPP+. Luminal efflux was also augmented when the tubular solution was made alkaline with HCO 3 − or phosphate, whereby HCO 3 − is more effective than phosphate. Replacement of Na+ by Cs+ showed no effect. With i.v. preloading the animals with NMeN+ and with 25 mM HCO 3 − in the luminal perfusate the 2-s efflux follows kinetics with a Michaelis constant K m=0.21 mmol/l and maximal flux J max=0.42 pmol · cm−1 · s−1 and a permeability term with P=37.7 μm2 · s−1. Comparing the apparent luminal inhibitory constant values for MPP+ $$(Ki_{l,MPP^ + } )$$ with the apparent contraluminal $$Ki_{cl,NMeN^ + }$$ values of substrates of homologous series, it was found that (1) limitation by molecular size occurs at the contraluminal cell side earlier than at the luminal cell side; (2) affinity increases with hydrophobicity of the substrates at the luminal cell side, with a steeper or equal slope than at the contraluminal cell side; (3) affinity increases with basicity (i.e. pKa values) at the luminal cell side with a steeper slope than at the contraluminal cell side. Taken together, substrates with low hydrophobicity and low basicity interact at the luminal cell side more weakly than at the contraluminal cell side. On the other hand large, hydrophobic substrates have, at the luminal cell side, a higher affinity than at the contraluminal cell side. Many substrates, however, have equal affinity at the luminal and contraluminal cell sides.
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