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  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (243)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Enantiomer resolution ; Chiral stationary phase ; Derivated cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new β-cyclodextrin derivatives, heptakis(6-O-isopropyldi-methylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin, heptakis(6-O-thexyldi-methylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin, and heptakis(6-O-cy-clohexyldimethyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (IPDE-β-CD, TXDE-β-CD, and CHDE-β-CD), were synthesized and the enan-tioselectivities of these three CD derivatives and heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-ethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TBDE-β-CD) were compared for GC separation of a range of chiral test com-pounds. In particular TXDE-β-CD showed much higher enentio-selectivity than TBDE-β-CD. Enentioselectivities of IPDE-β-CD and CHDE-β-CD are somewhat lower than that of TXDE-β-CD and CHDE-β-Cd are somewhat lower than that of TXDE-β-CD. These observations are indicative of significant effects of subtle changes in the structure of the 6-O-substituent on the enantioselec-tivity of the β-CD derivatives. The difference in enantioselectivities of the 6-O-substituted CD derivatives were explained in terms of relative contributions of the effects of hydrophobicity and steric hindrance of the substituent to the inclusion process. CHDE-β-CD showed the lowest enantioselectivity among the threederivatives. It is likely that the unfavorable steric hindrance of the bulky cyclo-hexyl group plays a greater role than the favorable hydrophobicity effect of the cyclohexyl group in the inclusion process in CHDE-β-CD. IPDE-β-CD showed lower selectivity than TXDE-β-CD and TBDE-β-CD. In the case of these CD derivatives having acyclic substituents the relative hydrophobicity of the substituent seems to be a dominant factor affecting the inclusion process. Isopropyl groups factor affecting the inclusion process. Isopropyl groups are less hydrophobic than thexyl and tert-butyl groups.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Enantiomer resolution ; Chiral stationary phases ; Derivatized cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three new chiral selectors, 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-diethyl-a-cyclodextrin, 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-diethyl- and dipropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TBDE-α-CD, TBDE-β-CD, TBDP-β-CD) were synthesized and tested as chiral stationary phases in capillary gas chromatography. TBDE-β-CD in particular showed a high enan-tioselectivity for test chiral compounds due to good solubility in a polar polysiloxane (OV-1701). Enantioselectivity obtained with TBDE-β-CD was compared with that of 6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TBDM-β-CD). Better enantiose-lectivity was obtained with TBDE-P-CD than with TBDM-β-CD for the test chiral compounds studied. This is probably due to greater effect of the increased hydrophobicity of TBDE-β-CD which favors inclusion of the analytes than the effect of increased steric hindrance. With TBDP-β-CD the less polar lactones are well separated due most likely to increased hydrophobicity of the propyl groups while the more polar are not well resolved. For TBDP-β-CD it is likely that the unfavorable steric hindrance is predominant over the favorable hydrophobicity of the propyl groups, thus hindering the formation of inclusion complexes of the alcohols with TBDP-β-CD. TBDE-α-CD was also a valuable chiral selector for the separation of small chiral molecules such as simple secondary alcohols and nitro-substituted alcohols.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: A,C- and A,D-bridged calix[6]arene ; stationary phase ; capillary gas chromatography ; geometric and positional isomer separation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A,C-Bridged (ACCX) and A,D-bridged isopropyldimethylsilylcalix[6]arene (ADCX) dissolved in OV-1701 were used as stationary phases in isothermal capillary gas chromatographic separation of some positional isomers. Retention factors and separation factors for the isomers were measured. The isomers investigated are well resolved on the two phases. Retention of all the solutes investigated is longer on ACCX than on ADCX. The longer retention on A,C-bridged calix[6]arene is probably due to extra inductive interactions of the solute molecule with the carbonyl moieties in the phase. Separation factors for closely eluting isomer pairs are similar on the two phases. This seems to indicate that the carbonyl moieties do not play an appreciable role in discriminating the isomer molecules on entering the cavity of the calixarene if the solute is retained by the inclusion process.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 15 (1988), S. 193-204 
    ISSN: 0887-6134
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method which involves the use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the identification of drug metabolites has been demonstrated with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The method is based on the fact that metabolites usually retain various substructures of the original drug molecule. MS/MS is capable of rapidly identifying molecules with characteristic substructures without prior separation. It is shown that this method makes it possible to postulate possible drug metabolite structures rapidly and systematically without the use of standards. The MS/MS method, as it was applied to the identification of the metabolites of a new antiepileptic drug, zonisamide, is discussed. In this case it was possible to identify isomeric metabolites due to their differences in vaporization times off the probe and their different daughter spectra. The complementary uses of the neutral loss and parent scans for the determination of the site of metabolism is demonstrated. A new figure of merit, the limit of identification, is introduced. The amount of the epoxide metabolite of carbamazepine necessary for its reliable identification in urine was shown to be 0.4 ng/μl. The application of various techniques to confirm preliminary findings with this MS/MS method are described.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; Stationary phase stability ; Stationary phase viscosity ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: With recent advances in column technology it is now possible to prepare highly efficient, very inert, and thermally stable capillary columns coated with nonpolar polysiloxane stationary phases. Unfortunately, the same degree of success has not been achieved for some of the more polar polysiloxane phases. A parameter that has been studied little in the past in relation to stationary phase film stability is the viscosity of the stationary phase. In this paper the efficiency and stability of coated columns are correlated to the viscosity of the phase. Due to their structure, the viscosity of the phenyl-containing polysiloxanes change rapidly with temperature and hence, thin-film coatings are not stable at elevated temperatures. By using high viscosity phenyl-containing methylphenylpolysiloxanes which were recently synthesized, efficient and stable columns have been prepared.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Fused silica capillary columns ; Deactivation ; Phenylhydrosiloxanes ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In this work, an investigation of new organosilicon hydride reagents with phenyl functional groups for deactivation and surface modification of fused silica capillary columns is described. Different reagents were tested for their ability to deactivate the fused silica surface, and actual critical surface tension measurements were made using the capillary rise method. The deactivation procedure required lower optimum temperatures than conventional methods. Deactivated capillaries and coated capillary columns were prepared and tested for reproducibility, efficiency, and surface inertness towards basic and acidic compounds at the low nanogram level.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary columns ; Gas chromatography, GC ; Stationary phases ; Liquid crystal ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mesomorphic biphenylcarboxylate esters were coupled via flexible aliphatic hydrocarbon spacers to a polysiloxane backbone. The influence of spacer length, percent mesomorphic substitution, and crosslinking of the stationary phase on liquid-crystalline transition temperatures and on chromatographic performance was investigated. Unique selectivity and good efficiency over a wide temperature range for gum and cross-linked liquid-crystalline phases were demonstrated by the separation of various isomeric polycyclic aromatic compounds.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Fused silica capillary columns ; Deactivation ; Cyanopropylhydrosiloxanes ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method is described for surface deactivation and modification of fused silica capillary columns with a cyanopropyl-containing reagent. The deactivation procedure involved a dehydrocondensation reaction between a bis(cyanopropyl)methylhydropolysiloxane reagent and surface silanol groups at an optimum temperature of only 250°C. Actual critical surface tension measurements were made using the capillary rise method. Excellent deactivation for acidic and basic compounds at the low ng level, and wettability for nonpolar and polar polysiloxane stationary phases were obtained. A procedure was developed to remove acidic impurities that are present in polar stationary phases.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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