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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-03-01
    Description: The human X and Y chromosomes evolved from an ordinary pair of autosomes during the past 200-300 million years. The human MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) retains only three percent of the ancestral autosomes' genes owing to genetic decay. This evolutionary decay was driven by a series of five 'stratification' events. Each event suppressed X-Y crossing over within a chromosome segment or 'stratum', incorporated that segment into the MSY and subjected its genes to the erosive forces that attend the absence of crossing over. The last of these events occurred 30 million years ago, 5 million years before the human and Old World monkey lineages diverged. Although speculation abounds regarding ongoing decay and looming extinction of the human Y chromosome, remarkably little is known about how many MSY genes were lost in the human lineage in the 25 million years that have followed its separation from the Old World monkey lineage. To investigate this question, we sequenced the MSY of the rhesus macaque, an Old World monkey, and compared it to the human MSY. We discovered that during the last 25 million years MSY gene loss in the human lineage was limited to the youngest stratum (stratum 5), which comprises three percent of the human MSY. In the older strata, which collectively comprise the bulk of the human MSY, gene loss evidently ceased more than 25 million years ago. Likewise, the rhesus MSY has not lost any older genes (from strata 1-4) during the past 25 million years, despite its major structural differences to the human MSY. The rhesus MSY is simpler, with few amplified gene families or palindromes that might enable intrachromosomal recombination and repair. We present an empirical reconstruction of human MSY evolution in which each stratum transitioned from rapid, exponential loss of ancestral genes to strict conservation through purifying selection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292678/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hughes, Jennifer F -- Skaletsky, Helen -- Brown, Laura G -- Pyntikova, Tatyana -- Graves, Tina -- Fulton, Robert S -- Dugan, Shannon -- Ding, Yan -- Buhay, Christian J -- Kremitzki, Colin -- Wang, Qiaoyan -- Shen, Hua -- Holder, Michael -- Villasana, Donna -- Nazareth, Lynne V -- Cree, Andrew -- Courtney, Laura -- Veizer, Joelle -- Kotkiewicz, Holland -- Cho, Ting-Jan -- Koutseva, Natalia -- Rozen, Steve -- Muzny, Donna M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Wilson, Richard K -- Page, David C -- R01 HG000257/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG000257-17/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Feb 22;483(7387):82-6. doi: 10.1038/nature10843.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. jhughes@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367542" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes, Human, Y/*genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Crossing Over, Genetic/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Amplification/genetics ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Macaca mulatta/*genetics ; Male ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Radiation Hybrid Mapping ; Selection, Genetic/genetics ; Time Factors ; Y Chromosome/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-12-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Van Noorden, Richard -- Tollefson, Jeff -- Hayden, Erika Check -- Morello, Lauren -- Shen, Helen -- Butler, Declan -- Ledford, Heidi -- Witze, Alexandra -- Reich, Eugenie Samuel -- Schiermeier, Quirin -- Cyranoski, David -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 19;504(7480):344-9. doi: 10.1038/504344a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24352274" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astronomy/economics ; Atmosphere/chemistry ; Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology ; Disease Eradication ; Federal Government ; Fossils ; Genes ; HIV Infections/drug therapy ; History, 21st Century ; Hominidae/classification/genetics ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/pathogenicity ; Neurosciences/economics/trends ; Patents as Topic/legislation & jurisprudence ; Poliomyelitis/epidemiology ; *Science/economics/history ; Stem Cell Research ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2013-02-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2013 Feb 21;494(7437):295. doi: 10.1038/494295a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426305" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/drug effects ; Ecology/*economics/*organization & administration ; Environmental Monitoring ; Financing, Organized/economics/organization & administration ; Gulf of Mexico ; Humans ; National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)/*organization & administration ; Peer Review, Research ; Petroleum Pollution/*adverse effects/*economics ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-09-25
    Description: Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its small nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behaviour. Extensive work on the nematode has identified the neurons that are necessary for the different locomotory behaviours underlying chemotaxis through the use of laser ablation, activity recording in immobilized animals and the study of mutants. However, we do not know the neural activity patterns in C. elegans that are sufficient to control its complex chemotactic behaviour. To understand how the activity in its interneurons coordinate different motor programs to lead the animal to food, here we used optogenetics and new optical tools to manipulate neural activity directly in freely moving animals to evoke chemotactic behaviour. By deducing the classes of activity patterns triggered during chemotaxis and exciting individual neurons with these patterns, we identified interneurons that control the essential locomotory programs for this behaviour. Notably, we discovered that controlling the dynamics of activity in just one interneuron pair (AIY) was sufficient to force the animal to locate, turn towards and track virtual light gradients. Two distinct activity patterns triggered in AIY as the animal moved through the gradient controlled reversals and gradual turns to drive chemotactic behaviour. Because AIY neurons are post-synaptic to most chemosensory and thermosensory neurons, it is probable that these activity patterns in AIY have an important role in controlling and coordinating different taxis behaviours of the animal.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229948/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229948/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kocabas, Askin -- Shen, Ching-Han -- Guo, Zengcai V -- Ramanathan, Sharad -- DP1 MH099906/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Oct 11;490(7419):273-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11431. Epub 2012 Sep 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. akocabas@cgr.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23000898" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology ; Chemotaxis/*physiology ; Electric Stimulation ; Interneurons/physiology ; Neurons/physiology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2012-06-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 30;485(7400):558-9. doi: 10.1038/485558a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22660294" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cattle ; Escherichia coli O157/classification/isolation & purification ; Food Inspection/economics/methods/*trends ; Food Microbiology ; Food-Processing Industry/economics/standards ; Meat/*microbiology ; Shiga Toxin/toxicity ; Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification ; United States ; United States Department of Agriculture/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Vegetables/microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-10-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morello, Lauren -- Ledford, Heidi -- Shen, Helen -- Tollefson, Jeff -- Witze, Alexandra -- Zhang, Sarah -- England -- Nature. 2013 Oct 24;502(7472):419. doi: 10.1038/502419a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24153271" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antarctic Regions ; *Budgets ; Ecology/economics ; Expeditions/economics ; *Federal Government ; Morale ; Research/*economics ; Research Personnel/economics/psychology ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2013-04-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):151. doi: 10.1038/496151a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23579658" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*anatomy & histology/*cytology ; Humans ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods ; Mice ; Nerve Net/*anatomy & histology/*cytology ; Neural Pathways/anatomy & histology/cytology ; Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques/methods ; Neuroanatomy/*methods
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-07-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 25;499(7459):389. doi: 10.1038/499389a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23887409" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bone and Bones/cytology ; Cartilage/cytology ; Humans ; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells/*cytology ; Mesoderm/cytology ; Patient Advocacy ; Practice Guidelines as Topic ; Stem Cell Transplantation/ethics/*standards
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Helen -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508(7497):555-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24822279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Budgets/legislation & jurisprudence ; Career Mobility ; Education, Graduate/manpower ; *Federal Government ; Fellowships and Scholarships ; Financing, Organized/*economics/*organization & administration ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics ; Physics/economics ; Public Policy ; Research Personnel/*economics ; Research Support as Topic/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Uncertainty ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: The anatomical and functional architecture of the human brain is mainly determined by prenatal transcriptional processes. We describe an anatomically comprehensive atlas of the mid-gestational human brain, including de novo reference atlases, in situ hybridization, ultra-high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and microarray analysis on highly discrete laser-microdissected brain regions. In developing cerebral cortex, transcriptional differences are found between different proliferative and post-mitotic layers, wherein laminar signatures reflect cellular composition and developmental processes. Cytoarchitectural differences between human and mouse have molecular correlates, including species differences in gene expression in subplate, although surprisingly we find minimal differences between the inner and outer subventricular zones even though the outer zone is expanded in humans. Both germinal and post-mitotic cortical layers exhibit fronto-temporal gradients, with particular enrichment in the frontal lobe. Finally, many neurodevelopmental disorder and human-evolution-related genes show patterned expression, potentially underlying unique features of human cortical formation. These data provide a rich, freely-accessible resource for understanding human brain development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105188/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105188/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miller, Jeremy A -- Ding, Song-Lin -- Sunkin, Susan M -- Smith, Kimberly A -- Ng, Lydia -- Szafer, Aaron -- Ebbert, Amanda -- Riley, Zackery L -- Royall, Joshua J -- Aiona, Kaylynn -- Arnold, James M -- Bennet, Crissa -- Bertagnolli, Darren -- Brouner, Krissy -- Butler, Stephanie -- Caldejon, Shiella -- Carey, Anita -- Cuhaciyan, Christine -- Dalley, Rachel A -- Dee, Nick -- Dolbeare, Tim A -- Facer, Benjamin A C -- Feng, David -- Fliss, Tim P -- Gee, Garrett -- Goldy, Jeff -- Gourley, Lindsey -- Gregor, Benjamin W -- Gu, Guangyu -- Howard, Robert E -- Jochim, Jayson M -- Kuan, Chihchau L -- Lau, Christopher -- Lee, Chang-Kyu -- Lee, Felix -- Lemon, Tracy A -- Lesnar, Phil -- McMurray, Bergen -- Mastan, Naveed -- Mosqueda, Nerick -- Naluai-Cecchini, Theresa -- Ngo, Nhan-Kiet -- Nyhus, Julie -- Oldre, Aaron -- Olson, Eric -- Parente, Jody -- Parker, Patrick D -- Parry, Sheana E -- Stevens, Allison -- Pletikos, Mihovil -- Reding, Melissa -- Roll, Kate -- Sandman, David -- Sarreal, Melaine -- Shapouri, Sheila -- Shapovalova, Nadiya V -- Shen, Elaine H -- Sjoquist, Nathan -- Slaughterbeck, Clifford R -- Smith, Michael -- Sodt, Andy J -- Williams, Derric -- Zollei, Lilla -- Fischl, Bruce -- Gerstein, Mark B -- Geschwind, Daniel H -- Glass, Ian A -- Hawrylycz, Michael J -- Hevner, Robert F -- Huang, Hao -- Jones, Allan R -- Knowles, James A -- Levitt, Pat -- Phillips, John W -- Sestan, Nenad -- Wohnoutka, Paul -- Dang, Chinh -- Bernard, Amy -- Hohmann, John G -- Lein, Ed S -- 5R24HD0008836/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R00 HD061485/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH092535/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R24 HD000836/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- RC2 MH089921/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2MH089921/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):199-206. doi: 10.1038/nature13185. Epub 2014 Apr 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA [2]. ; Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA. ; Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, 1959 North East Pacific Street, Box 356320, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA [2] Computer Science and AI Lab, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA. ; Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. ; 1] Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA [2] Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA. ; Program in Neurogenetics, Department of Neurology and Semel Institute David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; 1] Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA [2] Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98105, USA. ; Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, and Department of Psychiatry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA. ; 1] Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA [2] Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695229" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anatomy, Artistic ; Animals ; Atlases as Topic ; Brain/embryology/*metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/genetics ; Fetus/cytology/embryology/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/*genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Neocortex/embryology/metabolism ; Species Specificity ; *Transcriptome
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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