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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: CD8(+) T cells have a central role in antitumour immunity, but their activity is suppressed in the tumour microenvironment. Reactivating the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells is of great clinical interest in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a new mechanism by which the antitumour response of mouse CD8(+) T cells can be potentiated by modulating cholesterol metabolism. Inhibiting cholesterol esterification in T cells by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT1, a key cholesterol esterification enzyme, led to potentiated effector function and enhanced proliferation of CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells. This is due to the increase in the plasma membrane cholesterol level of CD8(+) T cells, which causes enhanced T-cell receptor clustering and signalling as well as more efficient formation of the immunological synapse. ACAT1-deficient CD8(+) T cells were better than wild-type CD8(+) T cells at controlling melanoma growth and metastasis in mice. We used the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe, which was previously tested in clinical trials for treating atherosclerosis and showed a good human safety profile, to treat melanoma in mice and observed a good antitumour effect. A combined therapy of avasimibe plus an anti-PD-1 antibody showed better efficacy than monotherapies in controlling tumour progression. ACAT1, an established target for atherosclerosis, is therefore also a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Wei -- Bai, Yibing -- Xiong, Ying -- Zhang, Jin -- Chen, Shuokai -- Zheng, Xiaojun -- Meng, Xiangbo -- Li, Lunyi -- Wang, Jing -- Xu, Chenguang -- Yan, Chengsong -- Wang, Lijuan -- Chang, Catharine C Y -- Chang, Ta-Yuan -- Zhang, Ti -- Zhou, Penghui -- Song, Bao-Liang -- Liu, Wanli -- Sun, Shao-cong -- Liu, Xiaolong -- Li, Bo-liang -- Xu, Chenqi -- HL 60306./HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL060306/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17412. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Haven 03755, USA. ; Rheumatology and Immunology Department of ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072, China. ; Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*metabolism ; Esterification/drug effects ; Female ; Immunological Synapses/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Immunotherapy/*methods ; Male ; Melanoma/*drug therapy/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Sulfonic Acids/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-05-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hogan, Benjamin M -- Black, Brian L -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 4;522(7554):37-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25992543" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Differentiation ; *Cell Lineage ; Endothelial Cells/*cytology ; Female ; Humans ; *Lymphangiogenesis ; Lymphatic Vessels/*cytology/*injuries ; Male ; Myocardium/*cytology ; Stem Cells/*cytology ; Veins/*cytology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-07-02
    Description: Lenalidomide is a highly effective treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)). Here, we demonstrate that lenalidomide induces the ubiquitination of casein kinase 1A1 (CK1alpha) by the E3 ubiquitin ligase CUL4-RBX1-DDB1-CRBN (known as CRL4(CRBN)), resulting in CK1alpha degradation. CK1alpha is encoded by a gene within the common deleted region for del(5q) MDS and haploinsufficient expression sensitizes cells to lenalidomide therapy, providing a mechanistic basis for the therapeutic window of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS. We found that mouse cells are resistant to lenalidomide but that changing a single amino acid in mouse Crbn to the corresponding human residue enables lenalidomide-dependent degradation of CK1alpha. We further demonstrate that minor side chain modifications in thalidomide and a novel analogue, CC-122, can modulate the spectrum of substrates targeted by CRL4(CRBN). These findings have implications for the clinical activity of lenalidomide and related compounds, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of novel modulators of E3 ubiquitin ligases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kronke, Jan -- Fink, Emma C -- Hollenbach, Paul W -- MacBeth, Kyle J -- Hurst, Slater N -- Udeshi, Namrata D -- Chamberlain, Philip P -- Mani, D R -- Man, Hon Wah -- Gandhi, Anita K -- Svinkina, Tanya -- Schneider, Rebekka K -- McConkey, Marie -- Jaras, Marcus -- Griffiths, Elizabeth -- Wetzler, Meir -- Bullinger, Lars -- Cathers, Brian E -- Carr, Steven A -- Chopra, Rajesh -- Ebert, Benjamin L -- P01 CA066996/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA108631/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL082945/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jul 9;523(7559):183-8. doi: 10.1038/nature14610. Epub 2015 Jul 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, 89081 Ulm, Germany [3] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Celgene Corporation, San Diego, California 92121, USA. ; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Hematology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA. ; University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, 89081 Ulm, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26131937" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Casein Kinase I/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Line ; Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Immunologic Factors/pharmacology ; Jurkat Cells ; K562 Cells ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Myelodysplastic Syndromes/*genetics/*physiopathology ; Peptide Hydrolases/chemistry ; Proteolysis/drug effects ; Sequence Alignment ; Sequence Deletion ; Species Specificity ; Thalidomide/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ; Ubiquitination/*drug effects
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: How tissue regeneration programs are triggered by injury has received limited research attention. Here we investigate the existence of enhancer regulatory elements that are activated in regenerating tissue. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that leptin b (lepb) is highly induced in regenerating hearts and fins of zebrafish. Epigenetic profiling identified a short DNA sequence element upstream and distal to lepb that acquires open chromatin marks during regeneration and enables injury-dependent expression from minimal promoters. This element could activate expression in injured neonatal mouse tissues and was divisible into tissue-specific modules sufficient for expression in regenerating zebrafish fins or hearts. Simple enhancer-effector transgenes employing lepb-linked sequences upstream of pro- or anti-regenerative factors controlled the efficacy of regeneration in zebrafish. Our findings provide evidence for 'tissue regeneration enhancer elements' (TREEs) that trigger gene expression in injury sites and can be engineered to modulate the regenerative potential of vertebrate organs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844022/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844022/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kang, Junsu -- Hu, Jianxin -- Karra, Ravi -- Dickson, Amy L -- Tornini, Valerie A -- Nachtrab, Gregory -- Gemberling, Matthew -- Goldman, Joseph A -- Black, Brian L -- Poss, Kenneth D -- F32 HL120494/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- K08 HL116485/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL089707/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074057/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL064658/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL081674/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL089707/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):201-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17644. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049946" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animal Fins/injuries/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Cell Proliferation ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Female ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/genetics ; Heart ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Leptin/biosynthesis/genetics ; Lysine/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology ; Organ Specificity/*genetics ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Regeneration/*genetics/*physiology ; Transgenes/genetics ; Wound Healing/*genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics/*physiology ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-08-27
    Description: The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion in a noncoding region of C9orf72 is the most common cause of sporadic and familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. The basis for pathogenesis is unknown. To elucidate the consequences of G4C2 repeat expansion in a tractable genetic system, we generated transgenic fly lines expressing 8, 28 or 58 G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts that do not have a translation start site (AUG) but contain an open-reading frame for green fluorescent protein to detect repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation. We show that these transgenic animals display dosage-dependent, repeat-length-dependent degeneration in neuronal tissues and RAN translation of dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins, as observed in patients with C9orf72-related disease. This model was used in a large-scale, unbiased genetic screen, ultimately leading to the identification of 18 genetic modifiers that encode components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as well as the machinery that coordinates the export of nuclear RNA and the import of nuclear proteins. Consistent with these results, we found morphological abnormalities in the architecture of the nuclear envelope in cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified a substantial defect in RNA export resulting in retention of RNA in the nuclei of Drosophila cells expressing expanded G4C2 repeats and also in mammalian cells, including aged induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived neurons from patients with C9orf72-related disease. These studies show that a primary consequence of G4C2 repeat expansion is the compromise of nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear pore, revealing a novel mechanism of neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631399/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freibaum, Brian D -- Lu, Yubing -- Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo -- Kim, Nam Chul -- Almeida, Sandra -- Lee, Kyung-Ha -- Badders, Nisha -- Valentine, Marc -- Miller, Bruce L -- Wong, Philip C -- Petrucelli, Leonard -- Kim, Hong Joo -- Gao, Fen-Biao -- Taylor, J Paul -- AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N079725/PHS HHS/ -- NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG019724/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS057553/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079725/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):129-33. doi: 10.1038/nature14974. Epub 2015 Aug 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308899" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; DNA Repeat Expansion/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/genetics/*metabolism ; Eye/metabolism ; Female ; Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics/pathology ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Male ; Muscles/cytology/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism ; Nuclear Pore/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Open Reading Frames/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Proteins/*genetics ; RNA/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Transport/*genetics ; Salivary Glands/cytology/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-10
    Description: At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are 'orphans' for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule modulators for probing its biology. Using yeast-based screens against GPR68, here we identify the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective GPR68 positive allosteric modulator. More than 3,000 GPR68 homology models were refined to recognize lorazepam in a putative allosteric site. Docking 3.1 million molecules predicted new GPR68 modulators, many of which were confirmed in functional assays. One potent GPR68 modulator, ogerin, suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type but not in GPR68-knockout mice. The same approach led to the discovery of allosteric agonists and negative allosteric modulators for GPR65. Combining physical and structure-based screening may be broadly useful for ligand discovery for understudied and orphan GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, Xi-Ping -- Karpiak, Joel -- Kroeze, Wesley K -- Zhu, Hu -- Chen, Xin -- Moy, Sheryl S -- Saddoris, Kara A -- Nikolova, Viktoriya D -- Farrell, Martilias S -- Wang, Sheng -- Mangano, Thomas J -- Deshpande, Deepak A -- Jiang, Alice -- Penn, Raymond B -- Jin, Jian -- Koller, Beverly H -- Kenakin, Terry -- Shoichet, Brian K -- Roth, Bryan L -- GM59957/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM71896/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL114471/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA017204/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH104974/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 HD079124/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 26;527(7579):477-83. doi: 10.1038/nature15699. Epub 2015 Nov 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-7365, USA. ; National Institute of Mental Health Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (NIMH PDSP), School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7365, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California at San Francisco, Byers Hall, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, California 94158-2550, USA. ; Center for Integrative Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery (CICBDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7363, USA. ; Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7360, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry and Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities (CIDD), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7146, USA. ; Center for Translational Medicine and Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA. ; Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7264, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26550826" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation/drug effects ; Allosteric Site ; Animals ; Anti-Anxiety Agents/analysis/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Benzyl Alcohols/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Conditioning, Classical ; *Drug Discovery ; Fear ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ligands ; Lorazepam/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Male ; Memory/drug effects ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Models, Molecular ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/deficiency/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Triazines/analysis/*chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-10-16
    Description: Oncogenic activation of BRAF fuels cancer growth by constitutively promoting RAS-independent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signalling. Accordingly, RAF inhibitors have brought substantially improved personalized treatment of metastatic melanoma. However, these targeted agents have also revealed an unexpected consequence: stimulated growth of certain cancers. Structurally diverse ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors can either inhibit or paradoxically activate the MAPK pathway, depending whether activation is by BRAF mutation or by an upstream event, such as RAS mutation or receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Here we have identified next-generation RAF inhibitors (dubbed 'paradox breakers') that suppress mutant BRAF cells without activating the MAPK pathway in cells bearing upstream activation. In cells that express the same HRAS mutation prevalent in squamous tumours from patients treated with RAF inhibitors, the first-generation RAF inhibitor vemurafenib stimulated in vitro and in vivo growth and induced expression of MAPK pathway response genes; by contrast the paradox breakers PLX7904 and PLX8394 had no effect. Paradox breakers also overcame several known mechanisms of resistance to first-generation RAF inhibitors. Dissociating MAPK pathway inhibition from paradoxical activation might yield both improved safety and more durable efficacy than first-generation RAF inhibitors, a concept currently undergoing human clinical evaluation with PLX8394.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Chao -- Spevak, Wayne -- Zhang, Ying -- Burton, Elizabeth A -- Ma, Yan -- Habets, Gaston -- Zhang, Jiazhong -- Lin, Jack -- Ewing, Todd -- Matusow, Bernice -- Tsang, Garson -- Marimuthu, Adhirai -- Cho, Hanna -- Wu, Guoxian -- Wang, Weiru -- Fong, Daniel -- Nguyen, Hoa -- Shi, Songyuan -- Womack, Patrick -- Nespi, Marika -- Shellooe, Rafe -- Carias, Heidi -- Powell, Ben -- Light, Emily -- Sanftner, Laura -- Walters, Jason -- Tsai, James -- West, Brian L -- Visor, Gary -- Rezaei, Hamid -- Lin, Paul S -- Nolop, Keith -- Ibrahim, Prabha N -- Hirth, Peter -- Bollag, Gideon -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):583-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14982. Epub 2015 Oct 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Plexxikon Inc., 91 Bolivar Drive, Berkeley, California 94710, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26466569" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Enzyme Activation/drug effects ; Female ; Genes, ras/genetics ; Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Humans ; Indoles/adverse effects/pharmacology ; MAP Kinase Signaling System/*drug effects/genetics ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Mutation/genetics ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/*antagonists & inhibitors/genetics ; Sulfonamides/adverse effects/pharmacology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-15
    Description: The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF 〈/= 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 x 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 x 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 x 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755714/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755714/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zheng, Hou-Feng -- Forgetta, Vincenzo -- Hsu, Yi-Hsiang -- Estrada, Karol -- Rosello-Diez, Alberto -- Leo, Paul J -- Dahia, Chitra L -- Park-Min, Kyung Hyun -- Tobias, Jonathan H -- Kooperberg, Charles -- Kleinman, Aaron -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Liu, Ching-Ti -- Uggla, Charlotta -- Evans, Daniel S -- Nielson, Carrie M -- Walter, Klaudia -- Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika -- McCarthy, Shane -- Eriksson, Joel -- Kwan, Tony -- Jhamai, Mila -- Trajanoska, Katerina -- Memari, Yasin -- Min, Josine -- Huang, Jie -- Danecek, Petr -- Wilmot, Beth -- Li, Rui -- Chou, Wen-Chi -- Mokry, Lauren E -- Moayyeri, Alireza -- Claussnitzer, Melina -- Cheng, Chia-Ho -- Cheung, Warren -- Medina-Gomez, Carolina -- Ge, Bing -- Chen, Shu-Huang -- Choi, Kwangbom -- Oei, Ling -- Fraser, James -- Kraaij, Robert -- Hibbs, Matthew A -- Gregson, Celia L -- Paquette, Denis -- Hofman, Albert -- Wibom, Carl -- Tranah, Gregory J -- Marshall, Mhairi -- Gardiner, Brooke B -- Cremin, Katie -- Auer, Paul -- Hsu, Li -- Ring, Sue -- Tung, Joyce Y -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Enneman, Anke W -- van Schoor, Natasja M -- de Groot, Lisette C P G M -- van der Velde, Nathalie -- Melin, Beatrice -- Kemp, John P -- Christiansen, Claus -- Sayers, Adrian -- Zhou, Yanhua -- Calderari, Sophie -- van Rooij, Jeroen -- Carlson, Chris -- Peters, Ulrike -- Berlivet, Soizik -- Dostie, Josee -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Williams, Stephen R -- Farber, Charles -- Grinberg, Daniel -- LaCroix, Andrea Z -- Haessler, Jeff -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Giulianini, Franco -- Rose, Lynda M -- Ridker, Paul M -- Eisman, John A -- Nguyen, Tuan V -- Center, Jacqueline R -- Nogues, Xavier -- Garcia-Giralt, Natalia -- Launer, Lenore L -- Gudnason, Vilmunder -- Mellstrom, Dan -- Vandenput, Liesbeth -- Amin, Najaf -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Karlsson, Magnus K -- Ljunggren, Osten -- Svensson, Olle -- Hallmans, Goran -- Rousseau, Francois -- Giroux, Sylvie -- Bussiere, Johanne -- Arp, Pascal P -- Koromani, Fjorda -- Prince, Richard L -- Lewis, Joshua R -- Langdahl, Bente L -- Hermann, A Pernille -- Jensen, Jens-Erik B -- Kaptoge, Stephen -- Khaw, Kay-Tee -- Reeve, Jonathan -- Formosa, Melissa M -- Xuereb-Anastasi, Angela -- Akesson, Kristina -- McGuigan, Fiona E -- Garg, Gaurav -- Olmos, Jose M -- Zarrabeitia, Maria T -- Riancho, Jose A -- Ralston, Stuart H -- Alonso, Nerea -- Jiang, Xi -- Goltzman, David -- Pastinen, Tomi -- Grundberg, Elin -- Gauguier, Dominique -- Orwoll, Eric S -- Karasik, David -- Davey-Smith, George -- AOGC Consortium -- Smith, Albert V -- Siggeirsdottir, Kristin -- Harris, Tamara B -- Zillikens, M Carola -- van Meurs, Joyce B J -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Maurano, Matthew T -- Timpson, Nicholas J -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Durbin, Richard -- Wilson, Scott G -- Ntzani, Evangelia E -- Brown, Matthew A -- Stefansson, Kari -- Hinds, David A -- Spector, Tim -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Greenwood, Celia M T -- UK10K Consortium -- Jackson, Rebecca D -- Rowe, David W -- Loomis, Cynthia A -- Evans, David M -- Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L -- Joyner, Alexandra L -- Duncan, Emma L -- Kiel, Douglas P -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Richards, J Brent -- G1000143/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- K01 AR062655/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- MC_UU_12013/3/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AG005394/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG005407/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027574/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG027576/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR035582/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR035583/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- RC2 AR058973/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG018197/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG042140/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AG042143/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045580/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045583/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045614/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045632/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045647/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR045654/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 AR066160/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Oct 1;526(7571):112-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14878. Epub 2015 Sep 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Medicine, Human Genetics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1A2, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal H3T 1E2, Canada. ; Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, Massachusetts 02131, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015GE, The Netherlands. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane 4102, Australia. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Tissue Engineering, Regeneration and Repair Program, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York 10021, USA. ; Rheumatology Divison, Hospital for Special Surgery New York, New York 10021, USA. ; School of Clinical Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK. ; MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA. ; Department of Research, 23andMe, Mountain View, California 94041, USA. ; Department of Population Genomics, deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg S-413 45, Sweden. ; California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Bone &Mineral Unit, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Departments of Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences, Umea University, Umea S-901 87, Sweden. ; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden. ; Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg S-413 45, Sweden. ; McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montreal H3A 0G1, Canada. ; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015GE, The Netherlands. ; Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Department of Medical and Clinical Informatics, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research, University College London, London NW1 2DA, UK. ; Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, UK. ; Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1B1, Canada. ; Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden 2300RC, The Netherlands. ; Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University, Montreal H3G 1Y6, Canada. ; Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas 78212, USA. ; Musculoskeletal Research Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK. ; Department of Radiation Sciences, Umea University, Umea S-901 87, Sweden. ; School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53726, USA. ; School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK. ; Department of Statistics, deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands. ; Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6700 EV, The Netherlands. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Section Geriatrics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 1105, The Netherlands. ; Nordic Bioscience, Herlev 2730, Denmark. ; Cordeliers Research Centre, INSERM UMRS 1138, Paris 75006, France. ; Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, University Pierre &Marie Curie, Paris 75013, France. ; Departments of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine), Centre for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028, Spain. ; U-720, Centre for Biomedical Network Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Barcelona 28029, Spain. ; Department of Human Molecular Genetics, The Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona 08028, Spain. ; Women's Health Center of Excellence Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California - San Diego, San Diego, California 92093, USA. ; Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Osteoporosis &Bone Biology Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney 2010, Australia. ; School of Medicine Sydney, University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney 6959, Australia. ; St. Vincent's Hospital &Clinical School, NSW University, Sydney 2010, Australia. ; Musculoskeletal Research Group, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mediques, Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; Cooperative Research Network on Aging and Fragility (RETICEF), Institute of Health Carlos III, 28029, Spain. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital del Mar, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08193, Spain. ; Neuroepidemiology Section, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur IS-201, Iceland. ; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Genetic epidemiology unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3000CA, The Netherlands. ; Department of Orthopaedics, Skane University Hospital Malmo 205 02, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Sciences, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 751 85, Sweden. ; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umea Unviersity, Umea 901 85, Sweden. ; Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Universite Laval, Quebec City G1V 0A6, Canada. ; Axe Sante des Populations et Pratiques Optimales en Sante, Centre de recherche du CHU de Quebec, Quebec City G1V 4G2, Canada. ; Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands 6009, Australia. ; Department of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia. ; Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C 8000, Denmark. ; Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense C 5000, Denmark. ; Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Hvidovre 2650, Denmark. ; Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK. ; Medicine and Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; Institute of Musculoskeletal Sciences, The Botnar Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK. ; Department of Applied Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta. ; Clinical and Molecular Osteoporosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmo, Lund University, 205 02, Sweden. ; Department of Medicine and Psychiatry, University of Cantabria, Santander 39011, Spain. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla- IDIVAL, Santander 39008, Spain. ; Department of Legal Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander 39011, Spain. ; Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. ; Department of Reconstructive Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; Department of Medicine and Physiology, McGill University, Montreal H4A 3J1, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Oregon Health &Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed 13010, Israel. ; Laboratory of Epidemiology, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia. ; Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina 45110, Greece. ; Department of Health Services, Policy and Practice, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island 02903, USA. ; deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland. ; Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, Massachusetts 01702, USA. ; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal H3A 1A2, Canada. ; Department of Oncology, Gerald Bronfman Centre, McGill University, Montreal H2W 1S6, Canada. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. ; The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology and Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane 4029, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26367794" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bone Density/*genetics ; Bone and Bones/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Europe/ethnology ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Female ; Fractures, Bone/*genetics ; Gene Frequency/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genomics ; Genotype ; Homeodomain Proteins/*genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Wnt Proteins/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-05-30
    Description: Mechanical strain regulates the development, organization, and function of multicellular tissues, but mechanisms linking mechanical strain and cell-cell junction proteins to cellular responses are poorly understood. Here, we showed that mechanical strain applied to quiescent epithelial cells induced rapid cell cycle reentry, mediated by independent nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of first Yap1 and then beta-catenin. Inhibition of Yap1- and beta-catenin-mediated transcription blocked cell cycle reentry and progression through G1 into S phase, respectively. Maintenance of quiescence, Yap1 nuclear exclusion, and beta-catenin transcriptional responses to mechanical strain required E-cadherin extracellular engagement. Thus, activation of Yap1 and beta-catenin may represent a master regulator of mechanical strain-induced cell proliferation, and cadherins provide signaling centers required for cellular responses to externally applied force.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4572847/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4572847/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Benham-Pyle, Blair W -- Pruitt, Beth L -- Nelson, W James -- EB006745/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- GM 35527/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM035527/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 29;348(6238):1024-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4559.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Program in Cancer Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Program in Cancer Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. wjnelson@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26023140" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/*biosynthesis/metabolism ; Animals ; Cadherins/*metabolism ; Cell Adhesion/genetics ; Cell Cycle/*genetics ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cell Proliferation ; Dogs ; Epithelial Cells/cytology/metabolism/physiology ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Phosphoproteins/*biosynthesis/metabolism ; *Stress, Mechanical ; *Transcription, Genetic ; beta Catenin/*biosynthesis/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes, including histone modification. In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, morphologically distinct worker castes called minors and majors exhibit pronounced differences in foraging and scouting behaviors. We found that these behaviors are regulated by histone acetylation likely catalyzed by the conserved acetyltransferase CBP. Transcriptome and chromatin analysis in brains of scouting minors fed pharmacological inhibitors of CBP and histone deacetylases (HDACs) revealed hundreds of genes linked to hyperacetylated regions targeted by CBP. Majors rarely forage, but injection of a HDAC inhibitor or small interfering RNAs against the HDAC Rpd3 into young major brains induced and sustained foraging in a CBP-dependent manner. Our results suggest that behavioral plasticity in animals may be regulated in an epigenetic manner via histone modification.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Simola, Daniel F -- Graham, Riley J -- Brady, Cristina M -- Enzmann, Brittany L -- Desplan, Claude -- Ray, Anandasankar -- Zwiebel, Laurence J -- Bonasio, Roberto -- Reinberg, Danny -- Liebig, Jurgen -- Berger, Shelley L -- 2009005/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- DP2MH107055/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/ -- T32HD083185/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):aac6633. doi: 10.1126/science.aac6633.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Program in Epigenetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. simola@upenn.edu danny.reinberg@nyumc.org juergen.liebig@asu.edu bergers@upenn.edu. ; Program in Epigenetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Program in Epigenetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. ; Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. ; Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. ; Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. simola@upenn.edu danny.reinberg@nyumc.org juergen.liebig@asu.edu bergers@upenn.edu. ; School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. simola@upenn.edu danny.reinberg@nyumc.org juergen.liebig@asu.edu bergers@upenn.edu. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Program in Epigenetics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. simola@upenn.edu danny.reinberg@nyumc.org juergen.liebig@asu.edu bergers@upenn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26722000" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Ants/drug effects/*genetics/*physiology ; *Behavior, Animal ; Chromatin/metabolism ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Histone Deacetylase 2/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*physiology ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; *Social Behavior ; Social Class ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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