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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; GROWTH ; BLOOD ; GENE ; MATURATION ; DISRUPTION ; EXPRESSION ANALYSIS ; TUMOR ANGIOGENESIS ; MORPHOGENESIS ; neuropilin-1
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To characterize the role of a vascular-expressed class 3 semaphorin (semaphorin 3G [Sema3G]). METHODS AND RESULTS: Semaphorins have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Yet, they have more recently also been characterized as attractive and repulsive regulators of angiogenesis. Through a transcriptomic screen, we identified Sema3G as a molecule of angiogenic endothelial cells. Sema3G-deficient mice are viable and exhibit no overt vascular phenotype. Yet, LacZ expression in the Sema3G locus revealed intense arterial vascular staining in the angiogenic vasculature, starting at E9.5, which was detectable throughout adolescence and downregulated in adult vasculature. Sema3G is expressed as a full-length 100-kDa secreted molecule that is processed by furin proteases to yield 95- and a 65-kDa Sema domain-containing subunits. Full-length Sema3G binds to NP2, whereas processed Sema3G binds to NP1 and NP2. Expression profiling and cellular experiments identified autocrine effects of Sema3G on endothelial cells and paracrine effects on smooth muscle cells. CONCLUSIONS: Although the mouse knockout phenotype suggests compensatory mechanisms, the experiments identify Sema3G as a primarily endothelial cell-expressed class 3 semaphorin that controls endothelial and smooth muscle cell functions in autocrine and paracrine manners, respectively.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20947821
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  • 2
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; BLOOD ; CELL ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; Germany ; GENE ; transcription ; DIFFERENTIATION ; EPITHELIA ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; INJECTION ; BIOLOGY ; MOUSE ; DISRUPTION ; inactivation ; COMPLEMENTATION ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; STRATEGIES ; RECEPTORS ; INSIGHTS ; VESSELS ; nude mice ; SUBSETS ; ARCHITECTURE ; LETHALITY ; MORPHOGENESIS ; targeting ; molecular ; thymus ; MOLECULAR-BASIS ; SUBSET ; ALLELE ; BLOOD-VESSELS ; gene targeting ; mesenchyme ; development ; ALLELES ; EPITHELIUM ; function ; branching ; nude mouse blastocyst complementation ; thymus development ; VASCULAR DEVELOPMENT ; vascular endothelial growth factor
    Abstract: The thymus harbors an organ-typical dense network of branching and anastomosing blood vessels. To address the molecular basis for morphogenesis of this thymus-specific vascular pattern, we have inactivated a key vascular growth factor, VEGF-A, in thymus epithelial cells (TECs). Both Vegf-A alleles were deleted in TECs by a complementation strategy termed nude mouse [mutated in the transcription factor Foxn1 (forkhead box N1)] blastocyst complementation. Injection of Foxn1(+/+) ES cells into Foxn1(nu/nu) blastocysts reconstituted a functional thymus. By dissecting thymus stromal cell subsets, we have defined, in addition to medullary TECs (mTECs) and cortical TECs (cTECs), another prominent stromal cell subset designated cortical mesenchymal cells (cMes). In chimeric thymi, mTECs and cTECs but not cMes were exclusively ES cell-derived. According to this distinct origin, the Vegf-A gene was deleted in mTECs and cTECs, whereas cMes still expressed Vegf-A. This genetic mosaic was associated with hypovascularization and disruption of the organ-typical network of vascular arcades. Thus, vascular growth factor production by TECs is required for normal thymus vascular architecture. These experiments provide insights into Foxn1-dependent and Foxn1-independent stromal cell development and demonstrate the value of this chimeric approach to analyzing gene function in thymus epithelium
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16027358
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-04-02
    Description: The metabolism of endothelial cells during vessel sprouting remains poorly studied. Here we report that endothelial loss of CPT1A, a rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), causes vascular sprouting defects due to impaired proliferation, not migration, of human and murine endothelial cells. Reduction of FAO in endothelial cells did not cause energy depletion or disturb redox homeostasis, but impaired de novo nucleotide synthesis for DNA replication. Isotope labelling studies in control endothelial cells showed that fatty acid carbons substantially replenished the Krebs cycle, and were incorporated into aspartate (a nucleotide precursor), uridine monophosphate (a precursor of pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates) and DNA. CPT1A silencing reduced these processes and depleted endothelial cell stores of aspartate and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. Acetate (metabolized to acetyl-CoA, thereby substituting for the depleted FAO-derived acetyl-CoA) or a nucleoside mix rescued the phenotype of CPT1A-silenced endothelial cells. Finally, CPT1 blockade inhibited pathological ocular angiogenesis in mice, suggesting a novel strategy for blocking angiogenesis.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413024/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413024/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schoors, Sandra -- Bruning, Ulrike -- Missiaen, Rindert -- Queiroz, Karla C S -- Borgers, Gitte -- Elia, Ilaria -- Zecchin, Annalisa -- Cantelmo, Anna Rita -- Christen, Stefan -- Goveia, Jermaine -- Heggermont, Ward -- Godde, Lucica -- Vinckier, Stefan -- Van Veldhoven, Paul P -- Eelen, Guy -- Schoonjans, Luc -- Gerhardt, Holger -- Dewerchin, Mieke -- Baes, Myriam -- De Bock, Katrien -- Ghesquiere, Bart -- Lunt, Sophia Y -- Fendt, Sarah-Maria -- Carmeliet, Peter -- 269073/European Research Council/International -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):192-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14362. Epub 2015 Apr 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular link, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; 1] Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; Center for Molecular &Vascular Biology, Department of Cardiovascular Research, KU Leuven; Division of Clinical Cardiology, UZ Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; Laboratory of Lipid Biochemistry and Protein Interactions, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; 1] Vascular Patterning Laboratory, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] Vascular Patterning Laboratory, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [3] Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Laboratory of Cell Metabolism, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; 1] Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular link, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [3] Exercise Physiology Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25830893" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetic Acid/pharmacology ; Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Blood Vessels/cytology/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Carbon/*metabolism ; Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation/drug effects ; Citric Acid Cycle ; DNA/biosynthesis ; Disease Models, Animal ; Endothelial Cells/cytology/drug effects/enzymology/*metabolism ; Fatty Acids/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Gene Silencing ; Glucose/metabolism ; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Mice ; Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy/metabolism/pathology ; Nucleotides/*biosynthesis/chemistry/pharmacology ; Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects ; Retinopathy of Prematurity/drug therapy/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: Endothelial cells (ECs) are plastic cells that can switch between growth states with different bioenergetic and biosynthetic requirements. Although quiescent in most healthy tissues, ECs divide and migrate rapidly upon proangiogenic stimulation. Adjusting endothelial metabolism to the growth state is central to normal vessel growth and function, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report that the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor FOXO1 is an essential regulator of vascular growth that couples metabolic and proliferative activities in ECs. Endothelial-restricted deletion of FOXO1 in mice induces a profound increase in EC proliferation that interferes with coordinated sprouting, thereby causing hyperplasia and vessel enlargement. Conversely, forced expression of FOXO1 restricts vascular expansion and leads to vessel thinning and hypobranching. We find that FOXO1 acts as a gatekeeper of endothelial quiescence, which decelerates metabolic activity by reducing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Mechanistically, FOXO1 suppresses signalling by MYC (also known as c-MYC), a powerful driver of anabolic metabolism and growth. MYC ablation impairs glycolysis, mitochondrial function and proliferation of ECs while its EC-specific overexpression fuels these processes. Moreover, restoration of MYC signalling in FOXO1-overexpressing endothelium normalizes metabolic activity and branching behaviour. Our findings identify FOXO1 as a critical rheostat of vascular expansion and define the FOXO1-MYC transcriptional network as a novel metabolic checkpoint during endothelial growth and proliferation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilhelm, Kerstin -- Happel, Katharina -- Eelen, Guy -- Schoors, Sandra -- Oellerich, Mark F -- Lim, Radiance -- Zimmermann, Barbara -- Aspalter, Irene M -- Franco, Claudio A -- Boettger, Thomas -- Braun, Thomas -- Fruttiger, Marcus -- Rajewsky, Klaus -- Keller, Charles -- Bruning, Jens C -- Gerhardt, Holger -- Carmeliet, Peter -- Potente, Michael -- K08CA090438/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):216-20. doi: 10.1038/nature16498. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Angiogenesis &Metabolism Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Vascular Biology Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Vascular Morphogenesis Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon 1649-028, Portugal. ; Department of Cardiac Development and Remodeling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK. ; Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), D-13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Children's Cancer Therapy Development Institute, Beaverton, Oregon 97005, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD) and Center of Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine (CEDP), University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany. ; Vascular Patterning Laboratory, Vesalius Research Center, VIB and University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, D-13347 Berlin, Germany. ; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), D-10117 Berlin, Germany. ; International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Frankfurt Rhine-Main, D-13347 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Respiration ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-05-20
    Description: Blood vessels deliver oxygen and nutrients to every part of the body, but also nourish diseases such as cancer. Over the past decade, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis (blood vessel growth) has increased at an explosive rate and has led to the approval of anti-angiogenic drugs for cancer and eye diseases. So far, hundreds of thousands of patients have benefited from blockers of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor, but limited efficacy and resistance remain outstanding problems. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have shown new molecular targets and principles, which may provide avenues for improving the therapeutic benefit from anti-angiogenic strategies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4049445/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4049445/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carmeliet, Peter -- Jain, Rakesh K -- P01 CA080124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01-CA80124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA085140/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA115767/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA126642/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA163815/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA115767/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA126642/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA85140/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 19;473(7347):298-307. doi: 10.1038/nature10144.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven B-3000, Belgium. peter.carmeliet@vib-kuleuven.be〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21593862" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Animals ; Blood Vessels/growth & development/pathology/*physiology/physiopathology ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism ; Humans ; Neovascularization, Physiologic/*physiology ; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/metabolism ; Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Vesicular Transport Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-10-21
    Description: Angiogenesis is critical during tumour initiation and malignant progression. Different strategies aimed at blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors have been developed to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer patients. It has become increasingly clear that in addition to its effect on angiogenesis, other mechanisms including a direct effect of VEGF on tumour cells may account for the efficiency of VEGF-blockade therapies. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been described in various cancers including squamous tumours of the skin. Here we use a mouse model of skin tumours to investigate the impact of the vascular niche and VEGF signalling on controlling the stemness (the ability to self renew and differentiate) of squamous skin tumours during the early stages of tumour progression. We show that CSCs of skin papillomas are localized in a perivascular niche, in the immediate vicinity of endothelial cells. Furthermore, blocking VEGFR2 caused tumour regression not only by decreasing the microvascular density, but also by reducing CSC pool size and impairing CSC renewal properties. Conditional deletion of Vegfa in tumour epithelial cells caused tumours to regress, whereas VEGF overexpression by tumour epithelial cells accelerated tumour growth. In addition to its well-known effect on angiogenesis, VEGF affected skin tumour growth by promoting cancer stemness and symmetric CSC division, leading to CSC expansion. Moreover, deletion of neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), a VEGF co-receptor expressed in cutaneous CSCs, blocked VEGF's ability to promote cancer stemness and renewal. Our results identify a dual role for tumour-cell-derived VEGF in promoting cancer stemness: by stimulating angiogenesis in a paracrine manner, VEGF creates a perivascular niche for CSCs, and by directly affecting CSCs through Nrp1 in an autocrine loop, VEGF stimulates cancer stemness and renewal. Finally, deletion of Nrp1 in normal epidermis prevents skin tumour initiation. These results may have important implications for the prevention and treatment of skin cancers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beck, Benjamin -- Driessens, Gregory -- Goossens, Steven -- Youssef, Khalil Kass -- Kuchnio, Anna -- Caauwe, Amelie -- Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A -- Loges, Sonja -- Lapouge, Gaelle -- Candi, Aurelie -- Mascre, Guilhem -- Drogat, Benjamin -- Dekoninck, Sophie -- Haigh, Jody J -- Carmeliet, Peter -- Blanpain, Cedric -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 19;478(7369):399-403. doi: 10.1038/nature10525.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉IRIBHM, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 808 route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22012397" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/*blood supply/*pathology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Mice ; Neoplastic Stem Cells ; Neuropilin-1/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Skin Neoplasms/*blood supply/*pathology ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-05-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carmeliet, Peter -- De Strooper, Bart -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 23;485(7399):451-2. doi: 10.1038/485451a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22622564" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apolipoproteins E/*metabolism ; Blood-Brain Barrier/*physiology ; Cerebrovascular Circulation/*physiology ; Cyclophilin A/*metabolism ; Humans
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-07-11
    Description: Cancer cells have been at the centre of cell metabolism research, but the metabolism of stromal and immune cells has received less attention. Nonetheless, these cells influence the progression of malignant, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Here we discuss the metabolic adaptations of stromal and immune cells in health and disease, and highlight how metabolism determines their differentiation and function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ghesquiere, Bart -- Wong, Brian W -- Kuchnio, Anna -- Carmeliet, Peter -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 10;511(7508):167-76. doi: 10.1038/nature13312.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven B-3000, Belgium [2] Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven B-3000, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25008522" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Endothelial Cells/cytology/enzymology/metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Humans ; Macrophages/cytology/*metabolism ; Neoplasms/metabolism/pathology ; Stromal Cells/cytology/enzymology/*metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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