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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Human Genetics ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Bioinformatics ; Biomedicine ; Human Genetics ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Public Health/Gesundheitswesen ; Epidemiology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781441914828
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Human Genetics ; Public Health ; Epidemiology ; Bioinformatics ; Biochemistry ; Biomedicine ; Human Genetics ; Epidemiology ; Biochemistry, general ; Computational Biology/Bioinformatics ; Public Health ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Introduction -- 1. Toward new tools -- 2. Models of development -- 3. Groupoid symmetries -- 4. Epigenetic catalysis -- 5. Developmental disorders -- 6. An interim perspective -- 7. The obesity pandemic in the US -- 8. Coronary heart disease in the US. - 9. Cancer: a developmental perspective -- 10. Autoimmune disorders -- 11. Demoralization and obesity in Upper Manhattan -- 12. Death at an early age: AIDS and related mortality in New York City -- 13. Mental Disorders I: Western atomism and its culture-bound syndromes -- 14. Mental Disorders II: Psychopathology and sleep -- 15. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer in Manhattan's Chinatown -- 16. Right-To-Work Laws and Alzheimer's Disease -- 17. Stress as an Environmental Exposure -- 18. Final Thoughts -- 19. Mathematical Appendix
    Abstract: This book describes how epigenetic context, in a large sense, affects gene expression and the development of an organism, using the asymptotic limit theorems of information theory to construct statistical models useful in data analysis. The approach allows deep understanding of how embedding context affects development. We find that epigenetic information sources act as tunable catalysts, directing ontogeny into characteristic pathways, a perspective having important implications for epigenetic epidemiology. In sum, environmental stressors can induce a broad spectrum of developmental dysfunctions, and the book explores a number of pandemic chronic diseases, using U.S. data at different scales and levels of organization. In particular, we find the legacy of slavery has been grossly compounded by accelerating industrial decline and urban decay. Individual chapters are dedicated to obesity and its sequelae, coronary heart disease, cancer, mental disorders, autoimmune dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, and other conditions. Developmental disorders are driven by environmental factors channeled by historical trajectory and are unlikely to respond to medical interventions at the population level in the face of persistent individual and community stress. Drugs powerful enough to affect deleterious epigenetic programming will likely have side effects leading to shortened lifespan. Addressing chronic conditions and developmental disorders requires significant large-scale changes in public policy and resource allocation
    Pages: XIII, 344 p. 52 illus. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2017.
    ISBN: 9783319480787
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  • 3
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    Dordrecht : Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Science (General) ; Agriculture ; Endangered ecosystems ; Environmental management ; Development Economics ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Environmental management ; Ecosystems ; Science, general ; Development Economics ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789400714120
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  • 4
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Human Genetics ; Psychiatry ; Systems Biology ; Life sciences ; Systems Biology ; Human Genetics ; Psychiatry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Consciousness, Crosstalk, and the Mereological Fallacy -- A Cognitive Paradigm for Gene Expression -- Western Atomism and its Culture-Bound Syndromes -- Environmental Induction of Neurodevelopmental Disorders -- Sleep, Psychopathology and Culture -- Embodied cognition and its disorders -- Tools for the Future: Hidden Symmetries -- Psychopathologies of automata I: autonomous vehicle systems -- Psychopathologies of automata II: autonomous weapons and centaur systems -- The dynamics of environmental insult -- Social psychopathology: military doctrine and the madness of crowds -- Mathematical Appendix -- Index
    Abstract: This book explores mental disorders from a uniquely evolutionary perspective. Although there have been many attempts to mathematically model neural processes and, to some extent, their dysfunction, there is very little literature that models mental function within a sociocultural, socioeconomic, and environmental context. Addressing this gap in the extant literature, this book explores essential aspects of mental disorders, recognizing the ubiquitous role played by the exaptation of crosstalk between cognitive modules at many different scales and levels of organization, the missing heritability of complex diseases, and cultural epigenetics. Further, it introduces readers to valuable control theory tools that permit the exploration of the environmental induction of neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as the study of the synergism between culture, psychopathology and sleep disorders, offering a distinctively unique resource
    Pages: XII, 236 p. 31 illus. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319539102
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  • 5
    Keywords: Popular works ; Gene Expression ; Evolutionary Biology ; Medicine ; Health ; Popular Science ; Popular Life Sciences ; Evolutionary Biology ; Popular Science in Medicine and Health ; Gene Expression ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Part I: The Novel -- Part II: The Science behind the fiction
    Abstract: Genetics professor Michelle Murphy loses her husband under mysterious circumstances and without warning, while their brilliant eight-year-old daughter Avalon, adopted in Kazakhstan, stubbornly believes she is a mutant. As if this were not enough, she soon finds herself thrown into the middle of a quickly thickening plot, where the legacy of Genghis Khan meets the hunt for FOXP5, a genetic transcription factor that could herald the dawn of new human species. Initially caught helplessly between well-meaning fellow scientists, the government, and more sinister agents, Michelle eventually takes control with the help of a host of unlikely heroes and finds the courage to confront the decision of whether to save human lives or humanity. The scientific and technical aspects underlying the plot – in particular aspects of FOX proteins, genetic mutations, viruses, and cancer as well as the relation between intelligence and cortical complexity – are introduced and discussed by the authors in an extensive, non-technical appendix. Science writer Wallace Kaufman’s work has appeared in major magazines and newspapers in the U.S., England, and Kazakhstan. After Duke University he earned an M.Litt. from Oxford. His writing has taken him to Central and South America, to European Russia and the coasts of Siberia. He worked in most of Central Asia and served as resident adviser on housing and land reform in Kazakhstan. His books include Invasive Plants: Guide to Identification and the Impacts and Control of Common North American Species (2nd edition, 2013), Coming Out of the Woods - A Memoir (2001), No Turning Back (1994), and The Beaches Are Moving: The Drowning of America's Shoreline, (1979/1983). David Deamer is a Research Professor of Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He recently published First Life: Discovering the Connections between Stars, Cells, and How Life Began (2011). Deamer's research concerns molecular self-assembly processes related to the origin and evolution of membrane structure. Over the past 25 years, he has been engaged in developing nanoscopic pores in lipid bilayers as a way to sequence DNA. This work came to fruition in 2015 when the first portable nanopore sequencing device was successfully tested by early users
    Pages: VII, 251 p. 1 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319289618
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  • 6
    Keywords: Otorhinolaryngology ; Neurosciences ; Otorhinolaryngology ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Visual Influence on Auditory Perception -- Cue Combination Within a Bayesian Framework -- Toward a Model of Auditory-Visual Speech Intelligibility -- An Object-Based Interpretation of Audiovisual Processing -- Hearing in a “Moving” Visual World: Coordinate Transformations Along the Auditory Pathway -- Multisensory Processing in the Auditory Cortex -- Audiovisual Integration in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex -- Using Multisensory Integration to Understand the Human Auditory Cortex -- Combining Voice and Face Content in the Primate Temporal Lobe -- Neural Network Dynamics and Audiovisual Integration -- Cross-Modal Learning in the Auditory System -- Multisensory Processing Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Abstract: Auditory behavior, perception, and cognition are all shaped by information from other sensory systems. This volume examines this multi-sensory view of auditory function at levels of analysis ranging from the single neuron to neuroimaging in human clinical populations. Visual Influence on Auditory Perception Adrian K.C. Lee and Mark T. Wallace Cue Combination within a Bayesian Framework David Alais and David Burr Toward a Model of Auditory-Visual Speech Intelligibility Ken W. Grant and Joshua G. W. Bernstein An Object-based Interpretation of Audiovisual Processing Adrian K.C. Lee, Ross K. Maddox, and Jennifer K. Bizley Hearing in a “Moving” Visual World: Coordinate Transformations Along the Auditory Pathway Shawn M. Willett, Jennifer M. Groh, Ross K. Maddox Multisensory Processing in the Auditory Cortex Andrew J. King, Amy Hammond-Kenny, Fernando R. Nodal Audiovisual Integration in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex Bethany Plakke and Lizabeth M. Romanski Using Multisensory Integration to Understand Human Auditory Cortex Michael S. Beauchamp Combining Voice and Face Content in the Primate Temporal Lobe Catherine Perrodin and Christopher I. Petkov Neural Network Dynamics and Audiovisual Integration Julian Keil and Daniel Senkowski Cross-Modal Learning in the Auditory System Patrick Bruns and Brigitte Röder Multisensory Processing Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Sarah H. Baum Miller, Mark T. Wallace Adrian K.C. Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences and the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle Mark T. Wallace is the Louise B McGavock Endowed Chair and Professor in the Departments of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Psychiatry, Psychology and Director of the Vanderbilt Brain Institute at Vanderbilt University, Nashville Allison B. Coffin is Associate Professor in the Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience at Washington State University, Vancouver, WA Arthur N. Popper is Professor Emeritus and research professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Maryland, College Park Richard R. Fay is Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology at Loyola University, Chicago
    Pages: XVI, 272 p. 70 illus., 49 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783030104610
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-05-28
    Description: Fusing left and right eye images into a single view is dependent on precise ocular alignment, which relies on coordinated eye movements. During movements of the head this alignment is maintained by numerous reflexes. Although rodents share with other mammals the key components of eye movement control, the coordination of eye movements in freely moving rodents is unknown. Here we show that movements of the two eyes in freely moving rats differ fundamentally from the precisely controlled eye movements used by other mammals to maintain continuous binocular fusion. The observed eye movements serve to keep the visual fields of the two eyes continuously overlapping above the animal during free movement, but not continuously aligned. Overhead visual stimuli presented to rats freely exploring an open arena evoke an immediate shelter-seeking behaviour, but are ineffective when presented beside the arena. We suggest that continuously overlapping visual fields overhead would be of evolutionary benefit for predator detection by minimizing blind spots.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wallace, Damian J -- Greenberg, David S -- Sawinski, Juergen -- Rulla, Stefanie -- Notaro, Giuseppe -- Kerr, Jason N D -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jun 6;498(7452):65-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12153. Epub 2013 May 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Network Imaging Group, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstrasse 41, 72076 Tubingen, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23708965" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Escape Reaction/physiology ; Exploratory Behavior/physiology ; Eye Movements/physiology ; Head/physiology ; Models, Biological ; Movement/physiology ; Optic Disk/physiology ; Predatory Behavior ; Rats ; Retina/physiology ; Vision, Binocular/*physiology ; Visual Fields/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-04-12
    Description: Obtaining high-resolution information from a complex system, while maintaining the global perspective needed to understand system function, represents a key challenge in biology. Here we address this challenge with a method (termed CLARITY) for the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using mouse brains, we show intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters. CLARITY also enables intact-tissue in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry with multiple rounds of staining and de-staining in non-sectioned tissue, and antibody labelling throughout the intact adult mouse brain. Finally, we show that CLARITY enables fine structural analysis of clinical samples, including non-sectioned human tissue from a neuropsychiatric-disease setting, establishing a path for the transmutation of human tissue into a stable, intact and accessible form suitable for probing structural and molecular underpinnings of physiological function and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092167/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Kwanghun -- Wallace, Jenelle -- Kim, Sung-Yon -- Kalyanasundaram, Sandhiya -- Andalman, Aaron S -- Davidson, Thomas J -- Mirzabekov, Julie J -- Zalocusky, Kelly A -- Mattis, Joanna -- Denisin, Aleksandra K -- Pak, Sally -- Bernstein, Hannah -- Ramakrishnan, Charu -- Grosenick, Logan -- Gradinaru, Viviana -- Deisseroth, Karl -- DP1 OD000616/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA020794/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH099647/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 16;497(7449):332-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12107. Epub 2013 Apr 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23575631" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Cross-Linking Reagents/chemistry ; Formaldehyde/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogel/chemistry ; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/*methods ; In Situ Hybridization/methods ; Lipids/isolation & purification ; Mice ; Molecular Imaging/*methods ; Permeability ; Phenotype ; Scattering, Radiation
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: An analysis of present-day global depth distributions of reef-building corals and underlying environmental drivers contradicts a commonly held belief that ocean warming will promote tropical coral expansion into temperate latitudes. Using a global data set of a major group of reef corals, we found that corals were confined to shallower depths at higher latitudes (up to 0.6 meters of predicted shallowing per additional degree of latitude). Latitudinal attenuation of the most important driver of this phenomenon-the dose of photosynthetically available radiation over winter-would severely constrain latitudinal coral range extension in response to ocean warming. Latitudinal gradients in species richness for the group also suggest that higher winter irradiance at depth in low latitudes allowed a deep-water fauna that was not viable at higher latitudes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Muir, Paul R -- Wallace, Carden C -- Done, Terence -- Aguirre, J David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1135-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1259911.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. paul.muir@qm.qld.gov.au. ; Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. ; Museum of Tropical Queensland, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia. Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB #3, Townsville MC, Queensland 4810, Australia. ; Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand. School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa/*growth & development ; *Coral Reefs ; Datasets as Topic ; *Hot Temperature ; Seasons ; *Sunlight
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: Skinner and colleagues (Research Article, 23 January 2015, p. 395), based on metacarpal trabecular bone structure, argue that Australopithecus africanus employed human-like dexterity for stone tool making and use 3 million years ago. However, their evolutionary and biological assumptions are misinformed, failing to refute the previously existing hypothesis that human-like manipulation preceded systematized stone tool manufacture, as indicated by the fossil record.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Almecija, Sergio -- Wallace, Ian J -- Judex, Stefan -- Alba, David M -- Moya-Sola, Salvador -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1101. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8414.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, Department of Anthropology, The George Washington University, Science and Engineering Hall, 800 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20052, USA. Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. sergio.almecija@gmail.com. ; Department of Anthropology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain. ; ICREA at Institut Catala de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont and Unitat d'Antropologia Biologica (Departament BABVE), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-CP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26045428" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Humans ; Metacarpal Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Metacarpus/*anatomy & histology ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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