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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-05-23
    Description: The origins of neural systems remain unresolved. In contrast to other basal metazoans, ctenophores (comb jellies) have both complex nervous and mesoderm-derived muscular systems. These holoplanktonic predators also have sophisticated ciliated locomotion, behaviour and distinct development. Here we present the draft genome of Pleurobrachia bachei, Pacific sea gooseberry, together with ten other ctenophore transcriptomes, and show that they are remarkably distinct from other animal genomes in their content of neurogenic, immune and developmental genes. Our integrative analyses place Ctenophora as the earliest lineage within Metazoa. This hypothesis is supported by comparative analysis of multiple gene families, including the apparent absence of HOX genes, canonical microRNA machinery, and reduced immune complement in ctenophores. Although two distinct nervous systems are well recognized in ctenophores, many bilaterian neuron-specific genes and genes of 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways either are absent or, if present, are not expressed in neurons. Our metabolomic and physiological data are consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337882/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337882/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moroz, Leonid L -- Kocot, Kevin M -- Citarella, Mathew R -- Dosung, Sohn -- Norekian, Tigran P -- Povolotskaya, Inna S -- Grigorenko, Anastasia P -- Dailey, Christopher -- Berezikov, Eugene -- Buckley, Katherine M -- Ptitsyn, Andrey -- Reshetov, Denis -- Mukherjee, Krishanu -- Moroz, Tatiana P -- Bobkova, Yelena -- Yu, Fahong -- Kapitonov, Vladimir V -- Jurka, Jerzy -- Bobkov, Yuri V -- Swore, Joshua J -- Girardo, David O -- Fodor, Alexander -- Gusev, Fedor -- Sanford, Rachel -- Bruders, Rebecca -- Kittler, Ellen -- Mills, Claudia E -- Rast, Jonathan P -- Derelle, Romain -- Solovyev, Victor V -- Kondrashov, Fyodor A -- Swalla, Billie J -- Sweedler, Jonathan V -- Rogaev, Evgeny I -- Halanych, Kenneth M -- Kohn, Andrea B -- 1R01GM097502/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- 1S10RR027052/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- 55007424/Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- 5R21DA030118/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P30 DA018310/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG029360/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM097502/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH097062/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH097062/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA030118/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R21 RR025699/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R21RR025699/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR027052/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jun 5;510(7503):109-14. doi: 10.1038/nature13400. Epub 2014 May 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Ocean Shore Blvd, St Augustine, Florida 32080, USA [2] Department of Neuroscience & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA [3] Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Washington 98250, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, 101 Rouse Life Sciences, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA. ; The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Ocean Shore Blvd, St Augustine, Florida 32080, USA. ; 1] The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Ocean Shore Blvd, St Augustine, Florida 32080, USA [2] Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Washington 98250, USA. ; 1] Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain [2] Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona 08003, Spain. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 303 Belmont Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01604, USA [2] Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Gubkina 3, Moscow 119991, Russia. ; Department of Chemistry and the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; European Research Institute for the Biology of Ageing, University of Groningen Medical Center, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, Building 3226, Room 03.34, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands. ; Department of Medical Biophysics and Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Sunnybrook Research Institute 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada. ; Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Gubkina 3, Moscow 119991, Russia. ; Department of Neuroscience & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA. ; Genetic Information Research Institute, 1925 Landings Dr., Mountain View, California 94043, USA. ; Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 222 Maple Avenue, Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545, USA. ; Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Friday Harbor, Washington 98250, USA. ; Department of Computer Science, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK. ; 1] Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain [2] Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona 08003, Spain [3] Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain. ; 1] Department of Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 303 Belmont Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01604, USA [2] Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Gubkina 3, Moscow 119991, Russia [3] Center for Brain Neurobiology and Neurogenetics and Institute of Cytology and Genetics, RAS, Lavrentyev Avenue, 10, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia [4] Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory, 119991 Moscow, Russia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847885" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ctenophora/classification/*genetics/immunology/physiology ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genes, Developmental ; Genes, Homeobox ; Genome/*genetics ; Mesoderm/metabolism ; Metabolomics ; MicroRNAs ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Muscles/physiology ; *Nervous System/metabolism ; Neurons/metabolism ; Neurotransmitter Agents ; Phylogeny ; Transcriptome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-02-18
    Description: Studies of experimental grassland communities have demonstrated that plant diversity can stabilize productivity through species asynchrony, in which decreases in the biomass of some species are compensated for by increases in others. However, it remains unknown whether these findings are relevant to natural ecosystems, especially those for which species diversity is threatened by anthropogenic global change. Here we analyse diversity-stability relationships from 41 grasslands on five continents and examine how these relationships are affected by chronic fertilization, one of the strongest drivers of species loss globally. Unmanipulated communities with more species had greater species asynchrony, resulting in more stable biomass production, generalizing a result from biodiversity experiments to real-world grasslands. However, fertilization weakened the positive effect of diversity on stability. Contrary to expectations, this was not due to species loss after eutrophication but rather to an increase in the temporal variation of productivity in combination with a decrease in species asynchrony in diverse communities. Our results demonstrate separate and synergistic effects of diversity and eutrophication on stability, emphasizing the need to understand how drivers of global change interactively affect the reliable provisioning of ecosystem services in real-world systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hautier, Yann -- Seabloom, Eric W -- Borer, Elizabeth T -- Adler, Peter B -- Harpole, W Stanley -- Hillebrand, Helmut -- Lind, Eric M -- MacDougall, Andrew S -- Stevens, Carly J -- Bakker, Jonathan D -- Buckley, Yvonne M -- Chu, Chengjin -- Collins, Scott L -- Daleo, Pedro -- Damschen, Ellen I -- Davies, Kendi F -- Fay, Philip A -- Firn, Jennifer -- Gruner, Daniel S -- Jin, Virginia L -- Klein, Julia A -- Knops, Johannes M H -- La Pierre, Kimberly J -- Li, Wei -- McCulley, Rebecca L -- Melbourne, Brett A -- Moore, Joslin L -- O'Halloran, Lydia R -- Prober, Suzanne M -- Risch, Anita C -- Sankaran, Mahesh -- Schuetz, Martin -- Hector, Andy -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 24;508(7497):521-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13014. Epub 2014 Feb 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA [2] Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA. ; Department of Wildland Resources and the Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA. ; Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. ; Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK. ; School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA. ; 1] Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia [2] School of Natural Sciences, Department of Zoology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; State Key Laboratory of Grassland and Agro-Ecosystems, Research Station of Alpine Meadow and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. ; Department of Biology, MSC03-2020, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA. ; Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC) (CONICET-UNMdP), Mar del Plata 7600, Argentina. ; Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA. ; United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Grassland Soil and Water Research Lab, Temple, Texas 76502, USA. ; Queensland University of Technology, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane 4000, Australia. ; Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA. ; United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Agroecosystem Management Research Unit, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, USA. ; Department of Forest, Rangeland and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA. ; Berkeley Initiative for Global Change Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Yunnan Academy of Biodiversity, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China. ; Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, USA. ; 1] Australian Research Centre for Urban Ecology, Melbourne, c/o School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia [2] School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia. ; Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA. ; CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia. ; Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland. ; 1] School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK [2] National Centre for Biological Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065, India. ; Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531763" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; Biomass ; Climate ; *Eutrophication/drug effects ; Fertilizers/*adverse effects ; Geography ; International Cooperation ; *Poaceae/drug effects/physiology ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Buckley, Yvonne M -- Han, Yi -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):975-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1254662.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Natural Sciences and Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, Department of Zoology, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. ARC Center of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia. buckleyy@tcd.ie. ; ARC Center of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876482" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Birds ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods ; *Endangered Species ; *Introduced Species ; *Poaceae
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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