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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional repression of promoters and is essential for mammalian development. Establishment of DNA methylation is mediated by the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, whereas DNMT1 ensures maintenance of methylation through replication. Absence of these enzymes is lethal, and somatic mutations in these genes have been associated with several human diseases. How genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated remains poorly understood, as the mechanisms that guide recruitment and activity of DNMTs in vivo are largely unknown. To gain insights into this matter we determined genomic binding and site-specific activity of the mammalian de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. We show that both enzymes localize to methylated, CpG-dense regions in mouse stem cells, yet are excluded from active promoters and enhancers. By specifically measuring sites of de novo methylation, we observe that enzymatic activity reflects binding. De novo methylation increases with CpG density, yet is excluded from nucleosomes. Notably, we observed selective binding of DNMT3B to the bodies of transcribed genes, which leads to their preferential methylation. This targeting to transcribed sequences requires SETD2-mediated methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and a functional PWWP domain of DNMT3B. Together these findings reveal how sequence and chromatin cues guide de novo methyltransferase activity to ensure methylome integrity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baubec, Tuncay -- Colombo, Daniele F -- Wirbelauer, Christiane -- Schmidt, Juliane -- Burger, Lukas -- Krebs, Arnaud R -- Akalin, Altuna -- Schubeler, Dirk -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):243-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14176. Epub 2015 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; 1] Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland [2] University of Basel, Faculty of Sciences, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25607372" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; CpG Islands/genetics ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase/chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA Methylation/*genetics ; Embryonic Stem Cells/enzymology/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic/*genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Lysine/metabolism ; Mice ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Transport ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498988/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498988/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanders, Rogier W -- van Gils, Marit J -- Derking, Ronald -- Sok, Devin -- Ketas, Thomas J -- Burger, Judith A -- Ozorowski, Gabriel -- Cupo, Albert -- Simonich, Cassandra -- Goo, Leslie -- Arendt, Heather -- Kim, Helen J -- Lee, Jeong Hyun -- Pugach, Pavel -- Williams, Melissa -- Debnath, Gargi -- Moldt, Brian -- van Breemen, Marielle J -- Isik, Gozde -- Medina-Ramirez, Max -- Back, Jaap Willem -- Koff, Wayne C -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Rakasz, Eva G -- Seaman, Michael S -- Guttman, Miklos -- Lee, Kelly K -- Klasse, Per Johan -- LaBranche, Celia -- Schief, William R -- Wilson, Ian A -- Overbaugh, Julie -- Burton, Dennis R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Montefiori, David C -- Dean, Hansi -- Moore, John P -- 280829/European Research Council/International -- HHSN27201100016C/PHS HHS/ -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011106/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P51OD011106/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076105/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI036082/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007266/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):aac4223. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4223. Epub 2015 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. jpm2003@med.cornell.edu rws2002@med.cornell.edu. ; Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10004, USA. ; Pepscan Therapeutics, 8243RC Lelystad, Netherlands. ; Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53715, USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10004, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Neutralizing Antibody Center, and Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. jpm2003@med.cornell.edu rws2002@med.cornell.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089353" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology ; Cross Reactions ; Epitopes/immunology ; HIV Antibodies/*immunology ; HIV Infections/*prevention & control ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Macaca ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Multimerization ; Rabbits ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry/genetics/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-12-16
    Description: Methylation of cytosines is an essential epigenetic modification in mammalian genomes, yet the rules that govern methylation patterns remain largely elusive. To gain insights into this process, we generated base-pair-resolution mouse methylomes in stem cells and neuronal progenitors. Advanced quantitative analysis identified low-methylated regions (LMRs) with an average methylation of 30%. These represent CpG-poor distal regulatory regions as evidenced by location, DNase I hypersensitivity, presence of enhancer chromatin marks and enhancer activity in reporter assays. LMRs are occupied by DNA-binding factors and their binding is necessary and sufficient to create LMRs. A comparison of neuronal and stem-cell methylomes confirms this dependency, as cell-type-specific LMRs are occupied by cell-type-specific transcription factors. This study provides methylome references for the mouse and shows that DNA-binding factors locally influence DNA methylation, enabling the identification of active regulatory regions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stadler, Michael B -- Murr, Rabih -- Burger, Lukas -- Ivanek, Robert -- Lienert, Florian -- Scholer, Anne -- van Nimwegen, Erik -- Wirbelauer, Christiane -- Oakeley, Edward J -- Gaidatzis, Dimos -- Tiwari, Vijay K -- Schubeler, Dirk -- England -- Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7378):490-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10716.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, 4058 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170606" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; CpG Islands ; Cytosine/*metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology ; *Epigenomics ; Mice ; Neurons/cytology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Stem Cells/cytology ; Transcription Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-03-25
    Description: No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria. Morphology-based analyses have proved unconvincing because convergences are pervasive among unrelated ungulate-like placentals. Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen alpha1- and alpha2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level mammalian phylogenies. Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed, but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing improvements in instrumentation and analytical procedures, proteomics may produce a revolution in systematics such as that achieved by genomics, but with the possibility of reaching much further back in time.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Welker, Frido -- Collins, Matthew J -- Thomas, Jessica A -- Wadsley, Marc -- Brace, Selina -- Cappellini, Enrico -- Turvey, Samuel T -- Reguero, Marcelo -- Gelfo, Javier N -- Kramarz, Alejandro -- Burger, Joachim -- Thomas-Oates, Jane -- Ashford, David A -- Ashton, Peter D -- Rowsell, Keri -- Porter, Duncan M -- Kessler, Benedikt -- Fischer, Roman -- Baessmann, Carsten -- Kaspar, Stephanie -- Olsen, Jesper V -- Kiley, Patrick -- Elliott, James A -- Kelstrup, Christian D -- Mullin, Victoria -- Hofreiter, Michael -- Willerslev, Eske -- Hublin, Jean-Jacques -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Barnes, Ian -- MacPhee, Ross D E -- England -- Nature. 2015 Jun 4;522(7554):81-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14249. Epub 2015 Mar 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] BioArCh, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK [2] Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; BioArCh, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark. ; Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, London NW1 4RY, UK. ; CONICET- Division Paleontologia de Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata, Argentina. ; Seccion Paleontologia de Vertebrados. Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", 470 Angel Gallardo Av., C1405DJR, Buenos Aires, Argentina. ; Institute of Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzel-Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz, Germany. ; Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; Bioscience Technology Facility, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA. ; Target Discovery Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK. ; Applications Development, Bruker Daltonik GmbH, 28359 Bremen, Germany. ; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3b, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS, UK. ; Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. ; 1] BioArCh, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK [2] Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam OT Golm, Germany. ; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Department of Mammalogy, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York 10024, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25799987" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Bone and Bones/chemistry ; Cattle ; Collagen Type I/*chemistry/genetics ; Female ; *Fossils ; Mammals/*classification ; Perissodactyla/classification ; *Phylogeny ; Placenta ; Pregnancy ; Proteomics ; South America
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-12-18
    Description: Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) are key determinants of gene activity, yet they bind only a fraction of their corresponding DNA sequence motifs in any given cell type. Chromatin has the potential to restrict accessibility of binding sites; however, in which context chromatin states are instructive for TF binding remains mainly unknown. To explore the contribution of DNA methylation to constrained TF binding, we mapped DNase-I-hypersensitive sites in murine stem cells in the presence and absence of DNA methylation. Methylation-restricted sites are enriched for TF motifs containing CpGs, especially for those of NRF1. In fact, the TF NRF1 occupies several thousand additional sites in the unmethylated genome, resulting in increased transcription. Restoring de novo methyltransferase activity initiates remethylation at these sites and outcompetes NRF1 binding. This suggests that binding of DNA-methylation-sensitive TFs relies on additional determinants to induce local hypomethylation. In support of this model, removal of neighbouring motifs in cis or of a TF in trans causes local hypermethylation and subsequent loss of NRF1 binding. This competition between DNA methylation and TFs in vivo reveals a case of cooperativity between TFs that acts indirectly via DNA methylation. Methylation removal by methylation-insensitive factors enables occupancy of methylation-sensitive factors, a principle that rationalizes hypomethylation of regulatory regions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Domcke, Silvia -- Bardet, Anais Flore -- Adrian Ginno, Paul -- Hartl, Dominik -- Burger, Lukas -- Schubeler, Dirk -- England -- Nature. 2015 Dec 24;528(7583):575-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16462. Epub 2015 Dec 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland. ; University of Basel, Faculty of Sciences, Petersplatz 1, CH 4003 Basel, Switzerland. ; Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Binding, Competitive ; Cells, Cultured ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *DNA Methylation ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Genome/genetics ; Humans ; Mice ; Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: Pioneer transcription factors initiate cell-fate changes by binding to silent target genes. They are among the first factors to bind key regulatory sites and facilitate chromatin opening. Here, we identify an additional role for pioneer factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans foregut development, the pioneer factor PHA-4/FoxA binds promoters and recruits RNA polymerase II (Pol II), often in a poised configuration in which Pol II accumulates near transcription start sites. At a later developmental stage, PHA-4 promotes chromatin opening. We found many more genes with poised RNA polymerase than had been observed previously in unstaged embryos, revealing that early embryos accumulate poised Pol II and that poising is dynamic. Our results suggest that Pol II recruitment, in addition to chromatin opening, is an important feature of PHA-4 pioneer factor activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hsu, H-T -- Chen, H-M -- Yang, Z -- Wang, J -- Lee, N K -- Burger, A -- Zaret, K -- Liu, T -- Levine, E -- Mango, S E -- P40OD010440/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37GM056264/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37GM36477/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 19;348(6241):1372-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1223.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. ; Department of Physics and Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. Department of Biostatistics, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. smango@mcb.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26089518" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*embryology/genetics/metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/*metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genes, Helminth ; RNA Polymerase II/*metabolism ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcriptome
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-10-12
    Description: Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blatterhohle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bollongino, Ruth -- Nehlich, Olaf -- Richards, Michael P -- Orschiedt, Jorg -- Thomas, Mark G -- Sell, Christian -- Fajkosova, Zuzana -- Powell, Adam -- Burger, Joachim -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Oct 25;342(6157):479-81. doi: 10.1126/science.1245049. Epub 2013 Oct 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Palaeogenetics Group, Institute of Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24114781" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/*history ; Animal Feed/*history ; Animals ; Animals, Domestic ; *Anthropology ; Base Sequence ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics/history ; Europe ; *Evolution, Molecular ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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