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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-11-16
    Description: For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars approximately 1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566564/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566564/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Groenen, Martien A M -- Archibald, Alan L -- Uenishi, Hirohide -- Tuggle, Christopher K -- Takeuchi, Yasuhiro -- Rothschild, Max F -- Rogel-Gaillard, Claire -- Park, Chankyu -- Milan, Denis -- Megens, Hendrik-Jan -- Li, Shengting -- Larkin, Denis M -- Kim, Heebal -- Frantz, Laurent A F -- Caccamo, Mario -- Ahn, Hyeonju -- Aken, Bronwen L -- Anselmo, Anna -- Anthon, Christian -- Auvil, Loretta -- Badaoui, Bouabid -- Beattie, Craig W -- Bendixen, Christian -- Berman, Daniel -- Blecha, Frank -- Blomberg, Jonas -- Bolund, Lars -- Bosse, Mirte -- Botti, Sara -- Bujie, Zhan -- Bystrom, Megan -- Capitanu, Boris -- Carvalho-Silva, Denise -- Chardon, Patrick -- Chen, Celine -- Cheng, Ryan -- Choi, Sang-Haeng -- Chow, William -- Clark, Richard C -- Clee, Christopher -- Crooijmans, Richard P M A -- Dawson, Harry D -- Dehais, Patrice -- De Sapio, Fioravante -- Dibbits, Bert -- Drou, Nizar -- Du, Zhi-Qiang -- Eversole, Kellye -- Fadista, Joao -- Fairley, Susan -- Faraut, Thomas -- Faulkner, Geoffrey J -- Fowler, Katie E -- Fredholm, Merete -- Fritz, Eric -- Gilbert, James G R -- Giuffra, Elisabetta -- Gorodkin, Jan -- Griffin, Darren K -- Harrow, Jennifer L -- Hayward, Alexander -- Howe, Kerstin -- Hu, Zhi-Liang -- Humphray, Sean J -- Hunt, Toby -- Hornshoj, Henrik -- Jeon, Jin-Tae -- Jern, Patric -- Jones, Matthew -- Jurka, Jerzy -- Kanamori, Hiroyuki -- Kapetanovic, Ronan -- Kim, Jaebum -- Kim, Jae-Hwan -- Kim, Kyu-Won -- Kim, Tae-Hun -- Larson, Greger -- Lee, Kyooyeol -- Lee, Kyung-Tai -- Leggett, Richard -- Lewin, Harris A -- Li, Yingrui -- Liu, Wansheng -- Loveland, Jane E -- Lu, Yao -- Lunney, Joan K -- Ma, Jian -- Madsen, Ole -- Mann, Katherine -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Morozumi, Takeya -- Murtaugh, Michael P -- Narayan, Jitendra -- Nguyen, Dinh Truong -- Ni, Peixiang -- Oh, Song-Jung -- Onteru, Suneel -- Panitz, Frank -- Park, Eung-Woo -- Park, Hong-Seog -- Pascal, Geraldine -- Paudel, Yogesh -- Perez-Enciso, Miguel -- Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo -- Reecy, James M -- Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra -- Rohrer, Gary A -- Rund, Lauretta -- Sang, Yongming -- Schachtschneider, Kyle -- Schraiber, Joshua G -- Schwartz, John -- Scobie, Linda -- Scott, Carol -- Searle, Stephen -- Servin, Bertrand -- Southey, Bruce R -- Sperber, Goran -- Stadler, Peter -- Sweedler, Jonathan V -- Tafer, Hakim -- Thomsen, Bo -- Wali, Rashmi -- Wang, Jian -- Wang, Jun -- White, Simon -- Xu, Xun -- Yerle, Martine -- Zhang, Guojie -- Zhang, Jianguo -- Zhang, Jie -- Zhao, Shuhong -- Rogers, Jane -- Churcher, Carol -- Schook, Lawrence B -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 249894/European Research Council/International -- 5 P41 LM006252/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- 5 P41LM006252/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- BB/E010520/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E010520/2/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E010768/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E011640/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G004013/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H005935/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/I025328/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900950/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P20-RR017686/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P30 DA018310/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R13 RR020283A/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R13 RR032267A/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R21 DA027548/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R21 HG006464/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI083196/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 15;491(7424):393-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11622.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, De Elst 1, 6708 WD, Wageningen, The Netherlands. martien.groenen@wur.nl〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23151582" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Demography ; Genome/*genetics ; Models, Animal ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny ; Population Dynamics ; Sus scrofa/*classification/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Human neurons are functional over an entire lifetime, yet the mechanisms that preserve function and protect against neurodegeneration during ageing are unknown. Here we show that induction of the repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF) is a universal feature of normal ageing in human cortical and hippocampal neurons. REST is lost, however, in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing and expression analysis show that REST represses genes that promote cell death and Alzheimer's disease pathology, and induces the expression of stress response genes. Moreover, REST potently protects neurons from oxidative stress and amyloid beta-protein toxicity, and conditional deletion of REST in the mouse brain leads to age-related neurodegeneration. A functional orthologue of REST, Caenorhabditis elegans SPR-4, also protects against oxidative stress and amyloid beta-protein toxicity. During normal ageing, REST is induced in part by cell non-autonomous Wnt signalling. However, in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, REST is lost from the nucleus and appears in autophagosomes together with pathological misfolded proteins. Finally, REST levels during ageing are closely correlated with cognitive preservation and longevity. Thus, the activation state of REST may distinguish neuroprotection from neurodegeneration in the ageing brain.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110979/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110979/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lu, Tao -- Aron, Liviu -- Zullo, Joseph -- Pan, Ying -- Kim, Haeyoung -- Chen, Yiwen -- Yang, Tun-Hsiang -- Kim, Hyun-Min -- Drake, Derek -- Liu, X Shirley -- Bennett, David A -- Colaiacovo, Monica P -- Yankner, Bruce A -- DP1 AG044161/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- DP1 OD006849/OD/NIH HHS/ -- DP1OD006849/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG027916/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01AG27916/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG010161/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30AG10161/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG015819/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG017917/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG026651/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM105853/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AG15819/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG17917/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01AG26651/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01GM072551/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 AG000222/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Mar 27;507(7493):448-54. doi: 10.1038/nature13163. Epub 2014 Mar 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Faber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670762" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Aging/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Alzheimer Disease/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors/toxicity ; Animals ; Autophagy ; Brain/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Death/genetics ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Cognition ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Down-Regulation ; Frontotemporal Dementia/metabolism/pathology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Lewy Body Disease/metabolism/pathology ; Longevity ; Mice ; Mild Cognitive Impairment/metabolism ; Neurons/cytology/metabolism/pathology ; Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism ; *Oxidative Stress/genetics/physiology ; Phagosomes ; Repressor Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Up-Regulation ; Wnt Signaling Pathway ; Young Adult
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-02-23
    Description: Influenza antiviral agents play important roles in modulating disease severity and in controlling pandemics while vaccines are prepared, but the development of resistance to agents like the commonly used neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir may limit their future utility. We report here on a new class of specific, mechanism-based anti-influenza drugs that function through the formation of a stabilized covalent intermediate in the influenza neuraminidase enzyme, and we confirm this mode of action with structural and mechanistic studies. These compounds function in cell-based assays and in animal models, with efficacies comparable to that of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir and with broad-spectrum activity against drug-resistant strains in vitro. The similarity of their structure to that of the natural substrate and their mechanism-based design make these attractive antiviral candidates.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Jin-Hyo -- Resende, Ricardo -- Wennekes, Tom -- Chen, Hong-Ming -- Bance, Nicole -- Buchini, Sabrina -- Watts, Andrew G -- Pilling, Pat -- Streltsov, Victor A -- Petric, Martin -- Liggins, Richard -- Barrett, Susan -- McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L -- Niikura, Masahiro -- Withers, Stephen G -- G0600514/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Apr 5;340(6128):71-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1232552. Epub 2013 Feb 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23429702" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antiviral Agents/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dogs ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Humans ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Neuraminidase/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry ; Orthomyxoviridae/*drug effects/enzymology ; Oseltamivir/chemistry/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Sialic Acids/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Zanamivir/chemistry/pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2010-11-30
    Description: Amyloid-beta oligomers may cause cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease by impairing neuronal NMDA-type glutamate receptors, whose function is regulated by the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2. Here we show that amyloid-beta oligomers bind to the fibronectin repeats domain of EphB2 and trigger EphB2 degradation in the proteasome. To determine the pathogenic importance of EphB2 depletions in Alzheimer's disease and related models, we used lentiviral constructs to reduce or increase neuronal expression of EphB2 in memory centres of the mouse brain. In nontransgenic mice, knockdown of EphB2 mediated by short hairpin RNA reduced NMDA receptor currents and impaired long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus, which are important for memory formation. Increasing EphB2 expression in the dentate gyrus of human amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice reversed deficits in NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and memory impairments. Thus, depletion of EphB2 is critical in amyloid-beta-induced neuronal dysfunction. Increasing EphB2 levels or function could be beneficial in Alzheimer's disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030448/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3030448/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cisse, Moustapha -- Halabisky, Brian -- Harris, Julie -- Devidze, Nino -- Dubal, Dena B -- Sun, Binggui -- Orr, Anna -- Lotz, Gregor -- Kim, Daniel H -- Hamto, Patricia -- Ho, Kaitlyn -- Yu, Gui-Qiu -- Mucke, Lennart -- AG011385/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG022074/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K08 AG034531/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- NS041787/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG022074/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P01 AG022074-09/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011385/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG011385-08/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS041787/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS041787-09/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- RR18928-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 6;469(7328):47-52. doi: 10.1038/nature09635. Epub 2010 Nov 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21113149" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alzheimer Disease/*physiopathology/*therapy ; Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Cognition/*physiology ; Dentate Gyrus/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Humans ; Long-Term Potentiation ; Memory/physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Rats ; Receptor, EphB2/chemistry/*deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Synapses/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human-mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here we deduce several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF-occupied sequences. However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and with genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Notably, occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences tend to be pleiotropic; they function in several tissues and also co-associate with many TFs. Single nucleotide variants at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4343047/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4343047/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cheng, Yong -- Ma, Zhihai -- Kim, Bong-Hyun -- Wu, Weisheng -- Cayting, Philip -- Boyle, Alan P -- Sundaram, Vasavi -- Xing, Xiaoyun -- Dogan, Nergiz -- Li, Jingjing -- Euskirchen, Ghia -- Lin, Shin -- Lin, Yiing -- Visel, Axel -- Kawli, Trupti -- Yang, Xinqiong -- Patacsil, Dorrelyn -- Keller, Cheryl A -- Giardine, Belinda -- Mouse ENCODE Consortium -- Kundaje, Anshul -- Wang, Ting -- Pennacchio, Len A -- Weng, Zhiping -- Hardison, Ross C -- Snyder, Michael P -- 1U54HG00699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 3RC2HG005602/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 5U54HG006996/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK065806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK096266/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES024992/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021482/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003988/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007175/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007348/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG007354/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01DK065806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HG003988/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005573/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005602/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2HG005573/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 DE024427/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007234/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006996/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006997/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006998/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007004/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG006997/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Nov 20;515(7527):371-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13985.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA. ; 1] Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA [2] BRCF Bioinformatics Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA. ; Center for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics, Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304, USA. ; 1] Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2] Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. ; 1] Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Genomics Division, Berkeley, California 94701, USA [2] Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [3] School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, California 95343, USA. ; 1] Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Genomics Division, Berkeley, California 94701, USA [2] Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25409826" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Chromatin/genetics/metabolism ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; *Genomics ; Humans ; Mice ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-01-06
    Description: Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates have typically shown post-infection virological control, but protection against acquisition of infection has previously only been reported against neutralization-sensitive virus challenges. Here we demonstrate vaccine protection against acquisition of fully heterologous, neutralization-resistant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges in rhesus monkeys. Adenovirus/poxvirus and adenovirus/adenovirus-vector-based vaccines expressing SIV(SME543) Gag, Pol and Env antigens resulted in an 80% or greater reduction in the per-exposure probability of infection against repetitive, intrarectal SIV(MAC251) challenges in rhesus monkeys. Protection against acquisition of infection showed distinct immunological correlates compared with post-infection virological control and required the inclusion of Env in the vaccine regimen. These data demonstrate the proof-of-concept that optimized HIV-1 vaccine candidates can block acquisition of stringent, heterologous, neutralization-resistant virus challenges in rhesus monkeys.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271177/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271177/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barouch, Dan H -- Liu, Jinyan -- Li, Hualin -- Maxfield, Lori F -- Abbink, Peter -- Lynch, Diana M -- Iampietro, M Justin -- SanMiguel, Adam -- Seaman, Michael S -- Ferrari, Guido -- Forthal, Donald N -- Ourmanov, Ilnour -- Hirsch, Vanessa M -- Carville, Angela -- Mansfield, Keith G -- Stablein, Donald -- Pau, Maria G -- Schuitemaker, Hanneke -- Sadoff, Jerald C -- Billings, Erik A -- Rao, Mangala -- Robb, Merlin L -- Kim, Jerome H -- Marovich, Mary A -- Goudsmit, Jaap -- Michael, Nelson L -- AI002642/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI066924/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI095985-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI066924/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI066924-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084794-03/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR000168/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI066305/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI066305-05/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI078526-04/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 4;482(7383):89-93. doi: 10.1038/nature10766.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22217938" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/immunology ; Adenoviridae/genetics/immunology ; Animals ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*immunology ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Female ; HIV-1/immunology ; Macaca mulatta/*immunology ; Male ; Neutralization Tests ; SAIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/*immunology ; Viral Vaccines/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-05-03
    Description: In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Song, Young Min -- Xie, Yizhu -- Malyarchuk, Viktor -- Xiao, Jianliang -- Jung, Inhwa -- Choi, Ki-Joong -- Liu, Zhuangjian -- Park, Hyunsung -- Lu, Chaofeng -- Kim, Rak-Hwan -- Li, Rui -- Crozier, Kenneth B -- Huang, Yonggang -- Rogers, John A -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 2;497(7447):95-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12083.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636401" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ants/anatomy & histology ; Arthropods/*anatomy & histology ; Beetles/anatomy & histology ; Biomimetic Materials/chemistry ; *Biomimetics ; Compound Eye, Arthropod/*anatomy & histology ; Endoscopes ; Optics and Photonics/*instrumentation ; Photography/*instrumentation ; Silicon
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-09-10
    Description: Replication fork maintenance pathways preserve chromosomes, but their faulty application at nonallelic repeats could generate rearrangements causing cancer, genomic disorders and speciation. Potential causal mechanisms are homologous recombination and error-free postreplication repair (EF-PRR). Homologous recombination repairs damage-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-ended DSBs within replication. To facilitate homologous recombination, the recombinase RAD51 and mediator BRCA2 form a filament on the 3' DNA strand at a break to enable annealing to the complementary sister chromatid while the RecQ helicase, BLM (Bloom syndrome mutated) suppresses crossing over to prevent recombination. Homologous recombination also stabilizes and restarts replication forks without a DSB. EF-PRR bypasses DNA incongruities that impede replication by ubiquitinating PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) using the RAD6-RAD18 and UBC13-MMS2-RAD5 ubiquitin ligase complexes. Some components are common to both homologous recombination and EF-PRR such as RAD51 and RAD18. Here we delineate two pathways that spontaneously fuse inverted repeats to generate unstable chromosomal rearrangements in wild-type mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Gamma-radiation induced a BLM-regulated pathway that selectively fused identical, but not mismatched, repeats. By contrast, ultraviolet light induced a RAD18-dependent pathway that efficiently fused mismatched repeats. Furthermore, TREX2 (a 3'--〉5' exonuclease) suppressed identical repeat fusion but enhanced mismatched repeat fusion, clearly separating these pathways. TREX2 associated with UBC13 and enhanced PCNA ubiquitination in response to ultraviolet light, consistent with it being a novel member of EF-PRR. RAD18 and TREX2 also suppressed replication fork stalling in response to nucleotide depletion. Interestingly, replication fork stalling induced fusion for identical and mismatched repeats, implicating faulty replication as a causal mechanism for both pathways.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805358/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805358/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Lingchuan -- Kim, Tae Moon -- Son, Mi Young -- Kim, Sung-A -- Holland, Cory L -- Tateishi, Satoshi -- Kim, Dong Hyun -- Yew, P Renee -- Montagna, Cristina -- Dumitrache, Lavinia C -- Hasty, Paul -- 1 R01 CA123203-01A1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 2P01AG017242-12/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA054174/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA013330/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA123203/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Sep 26;501(7468):569-72. doi: 10.1038/nature12500. Epub 2013 Sep 8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Medicine/Institute of Biotechnology, The Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78245-3207, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013173" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Chromosomal Instability/*genetics ; Chromosome Breakage ; Chromosomes, Mammalian/*genetics ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Repair/*genetics ; DNA Replication/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Exodeoxyribonucleases/metabolism ; Homologous Recombination/*genetics ; Hydroxyurea/pharmacology ; Inverted Repeat Sequences/*genetics ; Mice ; Nucleotides/deficiency/metabolism ; Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/metabolism ; Rad51 Recombinase/metabolism ; RecQ Helicases/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/metabolism ; Ubiquitination/radiation effects ; Ultraviolet Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-01-15
    Description: Cells differentiate when transcription factors bind accessible cis-regulatory elements to establish specific gene expression programs. In differentiating embryonic stem cells, chromatin at lineage-restricted genes becomes sequentially accessible, probably by means of 'pioneer' transcription factor activity, but tissues may use other strategies in vivo. Lateral inhibition is a pervasive process in which one cell forces a different identity on its neighbours, and it is unclear how chromatin in equipotent progenitors undergoing lateral inhibition quickly enables distinct, transiently reversible cell fates. Here we report the chromatin and transcriptional underpinnings of differentiation in mouse small intestine crypts, where notch signalling mediates lateral inhibition to assign progenitor cells into absorptive or secretory lineages. Transcript profiles in isolated LGR5(+) intestinal stem cells and secretory and absorptive progenitors indicated that each cell population was distinct and the progenitors specified. Nevertheless, secretory and absorptive progenitors showed comparable levels of H3K4me2 and H3K27ac histone marks and DNase I hypersensitivity--signifying accessible, permissive chromatin-at most of the same cis-elements. Enhancers acting uniquely in progenitors were well demarcated in LGR5(+) intestinal stem cells, revealing early priming of chromatin for divergent transcriptional programs, and retained active marks well after lineages were specified. On this chromatin background, ATOH1, a secretory-specific transcription factor, controls lateral inhibition through delta-like notch ligand genes and also drives the expression of numerous secretory lineage genes. Depletion of ATOH1 from specified secretory cells converted them into functional enterocytes, indicating prolonged responsiveness of marked enhancers to the presence or absence of a key transcription factor. Thus, lateral inhibition and intestinal crypt lineage plasticity involve interaction of a lineage-restricted transcription factor with broadly permissive chromatin established in multipotent stem cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151315/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151315/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Tae-Hee -- Li, Fugen -- Ferreiro-Neira, Isabel -- Ho, Li-Lun -- Luyten, Annouck -- Nalapareddy, Kodandaramireddy -- Long, Henry -- Verzi, Michael -- Shivdasani, Ramesh A -- K01 DK088868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K01DK088868/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99 DK095983/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K99DK095983/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA127003/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50CA127003/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK081113/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK082889/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK081113/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01DK082889/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Feb 27;506(7489):511-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12903. Epub 2014 Jan 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Medical Oncology and Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology and Center for Functional Cancer Epigenetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24413398" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/deficiency/metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Cell Lineage/genetics ; Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; Enterocytes/cytology/metabolism ; Female ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Histones/metabolism ; Intestine, Small/cytology/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Receptors, Notch/metabolism ; Stem Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-07-22
    Description: The viral reservoir represents a critical challenge for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) eradication strategies. However, it remains unclear when and where the viral reservoir is seeded during acute infection and the extent to which it is susceptible to early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here we show that the viral reservoir is seeded rapidly after mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus monkeys and before systemic viraemia. We initiated suppressive ART in groups of monkeys on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after intrarectal SIVMAC251 infection. Treatment with ART on day 3 blocked the emergence of viral RNA and proviral DNA in peripheral blood and also substantially reduced levels of proviral DNA in lymph nodes and gastrointestinal mucosa as compared with treatment at later time points. In addition, treatment on day 3 abrogated the induction of SIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Nevertheless, after discontinuation of ART following 24 weeks of fully suppressive therapy, virus rebounded in all animals, although the monkeys that were treated on day 3 exhibited a delayed viral rebound as compared with those treated on days 7, 10 and 14. The time to viral rebound correlated with total viraemia during acute infection and with proviral DNA at the time of ART discontinuation. These data demonstrate that the viral reservoir is seeded rapidly after intrarectal SIV infection of rhesus monkeys, during the 'eclipse' phase, and before detectable viraemia. This strikingly early seeding of the refractory viral reservoir raises important new challenges for HIV-1 eradication strategies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126858/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126858/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whitney, James B -- Hill, Alison L -- Sanisetty, Srisowmya -- Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo -- Liu, Jinyan -- Shetty, Mayuri -- Parenteau, Lily -- Cabral, Crystal -- Shields, Jennifer -- Blackmore, Stephen -- Smith, Jeffrey Y -- Brinkman, Amanda L -- Peter, Lauren E -- Mathew, Sheeba I -- Smith, Kaitlin M -- Borducchi, Erica N -- Rosenbloom, Daniel I S -- Lewis, Mark G -- Hattersley, Jillian -- Li, Bei -- Hesselgesser, Joseph -- Geleziunas, Romas -- Robb, Merlin L -- Kim, Jerome H -- Michael, Nelson L -- Barouch, Dan H -- AI060354/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084794/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI091514/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007245/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI095985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100645/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Aug 7;512(7512):74-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13594. Epub 2014 Jul 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA [2] Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Program for Evolutionary Dynamics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Bioqual, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA. ; Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California 94404, USA. ; US Military HIV Research Program, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25042999" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Carrier State/drug therapy/virology ; DNA, Viral/analysis/biosynthesis/blood ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Kinetics ; Macaca mulatta/immunology/*virology ; Male ; Proviruses/genetics ; RNA, Viral/blood ; Rectum/virology ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy/immunology/*virology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/drug effects/*growth & ; development/immunology/physiology ; Time Factors ; Treatment Failure ; *Viral Load/drug effects ; Viremia/drug therapy/*virology ; Virus Replication/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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