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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-05-02
    Description: Centrioles are ancient organelles that build centrosomes, the major microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells. Extra centrosomes are a common feature of cancer cells. To investigate the importance of centrosomes in the proliferation of normal and cancer cells, we developed centrinone, a reversible inhibitor of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4), a serine-threonine protein kinase that initiates centriole assembly. Centrinone treatment caused centrosome depletion in human and other vertebrate cells. Centrosome loss irreversibly arrested normal cells in a senescence-like G1 state by a p53-dependent mechanism that was independent of DNA damage, stress, Hippo signaling, extended mitotic duration, or segregation errors. In contrast, cancer cell lines with normal or amplified centrosome numbers could proliferate indefinitely after centrosome loss. Upon centrinone washout, each cancer cell line returned to an intrinsic centrosome number "set point." Thus, cells with cancer-associated mutations fundamentally differ from normal cells in their response to centrosome loss.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4764081/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4764081/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wong, Yao Liang -- Anzola, John V -- Davis, Robert L -- Yoon, Michelle -- Motamedi, Amir -- Kroll, Ashley -- Seo, Chanmee P -- Hsia, Judy E -- Kim, Sun K -- Mitchell, Jennifer W -- Mitchell, Brian J -- Desai, Arshad -- Gahman, Timothy C -- Shiau, Andrew K -- Oegema, Karen -- GM074207/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM089970/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM089970/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 5;348(6239):1155-60. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5111. Epub 2015 Apr 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. ; Small Molecule Discovery Program, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. ; Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. ; Small Molecule Discovery Program, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. koegema@ucsd.edu ashiau@ucsd.edu. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. koegema@ucsd.edu ashiau@ucsd.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25931445" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; Centrioles/*drug effects ; Humans ; Mice ; Piperazines/pharmacology ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Pyrimidines/chemistry/*pharmacology ; Sulfones/chemistry/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-22
    Description: Behavioural states in mammals, such as the anxious state, are characterized by several features that are coordinately regulated by diverse nervous system outputs, ranging from behavioural choice patterns to changes in physiology (in anxiety, exemplified respectively by risk-avoidance and respiratory rate alterations). Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate diverse features of anxiety. Integrating behavioural assays, in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, respiratory physiology and optogenetics, we identify a surprising new role for the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the coordinated modulation of diverse anxiety features. First, two BNST subregions were unexpectedly found to exert opposite effects on the anxious state: oval BNST activity promoted several independent anxious state features, whereas anterodorsal BNST-associated activity exerted anxiolytic influence for the same features. Notably, we found that three distinct anterodorsal BNST efferent projections-to the lateral hypothalamus, parabrachial nucleus and ventral tegmental area-each implemented an independent feature of anxiolysis: reduced risk-avoidance, reduced respiratory rate, and increased positive valence, respectively. Furthermore, selective inhibition of corresponding circuit elements in freely moving mice showed opposing behavioural effects compared with excitation, and in vivo recordings during free behaviour showed native spiking patterns in anterodorsal BNST neurons that differentiated safe and anxiogenic environments. These results demonstrate that distinct BNST subregions exert opposite effects in modulating anxiety, establish separable anxiolytic roles for different anterodorsal BNST projections, and illustrate circuit mechanisms underlying selection of features for the assembly of the anxious state.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sung-Yon -- Adhikari, Avishek -- Lee, Soo Yeun -- Marshel, James H -- Kim, Christina K -- Mallory, Caitlin S -- Lo, Maisie -- Pak, Sally -- Mattis, Joanna -- Lim, Byung Kook -- Malenka, Robert C -- Warden, Melissa R -- Neve, Rachael -- Tye, Kay M -- Deisseroth, Karl -- F32 MH088010/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 MH020002/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):219-23. doi: 10.1038/nature12018. Epub 2013 Mar 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23515158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anxiety/pathology/*physiopathology ; Electrophysiology ; Mice ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Optogenetics ; Septal Nuclei/anatomy & histology/cytology/*physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-10-31
    Description: There is much interest in developing synthetic analogues of biological membrane channels with high efficiency and exquisite selectivity for transporting ions and molecules. Bottom-up and top-down methods can produce nanopores of a size comparable to that of endogenous protein channels, but replicating their affinity and transport properties remains challenging. In principle, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) should be an ideal membrane channel platform: they exhibit excellent transport properties and their narrow hydrophobic inner pores mimic structural motifs typical of biological channels. Moreover, simulations predict that CNTs with a length comparable to the thickness of a lipid bilayer membrane can self-insert into the membrane. Functionalized CNTs have indeed been found to penetrate lipid membranes and cell walls, and short tubes have been forced into membranes to create sensors, yet membrane transport applications of short CNTs remain underexplored. Here we show that short CNTs spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers and live cell membranes to form channels that exhibit a unitary conductance of 70-100 picosiemens under physiological conditions. Despite their structural simplicity, these 'CNT porins' transport water, protons, small ions and DNA, stochastically switch between metastable conductance substates, and display characteristic macromolecule-induced ionic current blockades. We also show that local channel and membrane charges can control the conductance and ion selectivity of the CNT porins, thereby establishing these nanopores as a promising biomimetic platform for developing cell interfaces, studying transport in biological channels, and creating stochastic sensors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Geng, Jia -- Kim, Kyunghoon -- Zhang, Jianfei -- Escalada, Artur -- Tunuguntla, Ramya -- Comolli, Luis R -- Allen, Frances I -- Shnyrova, Anna V -- Cho, Kang Rae -- Munoz, Dayannara -- Wang, Y Morris -- Grigoropoulos, Costas P -- Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M -- Frolov, Vadim A -- Noy, Aleksandr -- England -- Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):612-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13817.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Biology and Biotechnology Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA [2] School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, California 95340, USA [3] The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] Biology and Biotechnology Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA [2] The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, California 95340, USA. ; Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain. ; 1] Biology and Biotechnology Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA [2] The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; Biology and Biotechnology Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA. ; Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [2] Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA [3] Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. ; 1] Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa, Spain [2] Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Spain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25355362" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Transport ; CHO Cells ; Cell Membrane/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Cricetulus ; DNA/metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ion Channels/metabolism ; Lipid Bilayers/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Liposomes ; *Nanotubes, Carbon/ultrastructure ; Porins/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Stochastic Processes
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: Determining the signalling pathways that direct tissue expansion is a principal goal of regenerative biology. Vigorous pancreatic beta-cell replication in juvenile mice and humans declines with age, and elucidating the basis for this decay may reveal strategies for inducing beta-cell expansion, a long-sought goal for diabetes therapy. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor receptor (Pdgfr) signalling controls age-dependent beta-cell proliferation in mouse and human pancreatic islets. With age, declining beta-cell Pdgfr levels were accompanied by reductions in beta-cell enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (Ezh2) levels and beta-cell replication. Conditional inactivation of the Pdgfra gene in beta-cells accelerated these changes, preventing mouse neonatal beta-cell expansion and adult beta-cell regeneration. Targeted human PDGFR-alpha activation in mouse beta-cells stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, leading to Ezh2-dependent expansion of adult beta-cells. Adult human islets lack PDGF signalling competence, but exposure of juvenile human islets to PDGF-AA stimulated beta-cell proliferation. The discovery of a conserved pathway controlling age-dependent beta-cell proliferation indicates new strategies for beta-cell expansion.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3503246/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3503246/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Hainan -- Gu, Xueying -- Liu, Yinghua -- Wang, Jing -- Wirt, Stacey E -- Bottino, Rita -- Schorle, Hubert -- Sage, Julien -- Kim, Seung K -- R01 CA114102/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK056709/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK072184/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK075919/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009302/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK089532/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK89532/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK89572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;478(7369):349-55. doi: 10.1038/nature10502.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993628" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cells, Cultured ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology ; E2F Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase/genetics ; Humans ; Insulin-Secreting Cells/*cytology/enzymology/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 ; Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/*metabolism ; Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-02-01
    Description: Genetic and biochemical analyses of RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways have revealed proteins such as Argonaute and Dicer as essential cofactors that process and present small RNAs to their targets. Well-validated small RNA pathway cofactors such as these show distinctive patterns of conservation or divergence in particular animal, plant, fungal and protist species. We compared 86 divergent eukaryotic genome sequences to discern sets of proteins that show similar phylogenetic profiles with known small RNA cofactors. A large set of additional candidate small RNA cofactors have emerged from functional genomic screens for defects in miRNA- or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated repression in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and from proteomic analyses of proteins co-purifying with validated small RNA pathway proteins. The phylogenetic profiles of many of these candidate small RNA pathway proteins are similar to those of known small RNA cofactor proteins. We used a Bayesian approach to integrate the phylogenetic profile analysis with predictions from diverse transcriptional coregulation and proteome interaction data sets to assign a probability for each protein for a role in a small RNA pathway. Testing high-confidence candidates from this analysis for defects in RNAi silencing, we found that about one-half of the predicted small RNA cofactors are required for RNAi silencing. Many of the newly identified small RNA pathway proteins are orthologues of proteins implicated in RNA splicing. In support of a deep connection between the mechanism of RNA splicing and small-RNA-mediated gene silencing, the presence of the Argonaute proteins and other small RNA components in the many species analysed strongly correlates with the number of introns in those species.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762460/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762460/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tabach, Yuval -- Billi, Allison C -- Hayes, Gabriel D -- Newman, Martin A -- Zuk, Or -- Gabel, Harrison -- Kamath, Ravi -- Yacoby, Keren -- Chapman, Brad -- Garcia, Susana M -- Borowsky, Mark -- Kim, John K -- Ruvkun, Gary -- GM088565/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM098647/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM44619/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM044619/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM098647/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jan 31;493(7434):694-8. doi: 10.1038/nature11779. Epub 2012 Dec 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364702" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/classification/*genetics ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics ; Eukaryota/classification/genetics ; *Genetic Variation ; Genome/genetics ; MicroRNAs/genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Proteome ; RNA Splicing ; RNA, Small Interfering/*genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-10-29
    Description: Integrins have a critical role in thrombosis and haemostasis. Antagonists of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 are potent anti-thrombotic drugs, but also have the life-threatening adverse effect of causing bleeding. It is therefore desirable to develop new antagonists that do not cause bleeding. Integrins transmit signals bidirectionally. Inside-out signalling activates integrins through a talin-dependent mechanism. Integrin ligation mediates thrombus formation and outside-in signalling, which requires Galpha13 and greatly expands thrombi. Here we show that Galpha13 and talin bind to mutually exclusive but distinct sites within the integrin beta3 cytoplasmic domain in opposing waves. The first talin-binding wave mediates inside-out signalling and also ligand-induced integrin activation, but is not required for outside-in signalling. Integrin ligation induces transient talin dissociation and Galpha13 binding to an EXE motif (in which X denotes any residue), which selectively mediates outside-in signalling and platelet spreading. The second talin-binding wave is associated with clot retraction. An EXE-motif-based inhibitor of Galpha13-integrin interaction selectively abolishes outside-in signalling without affecting integrin ligation, and suppresses occlusive arterial thrombosis without affecting bleeding time. Thus, we have discovered a new mechanism for the directional switch of integrin signalling and, on the basis of this mechanism, designed a potent new anti-thrombotic drug that does not cause bleeding.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823815/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3823815/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shen, Bo -- Zhao, Xiaojuan -- O'Brien, Kelly A -- Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra -- Delaney, M Keegan -- Kim, Kyungho -- Cho, Jaehyung -- Lam, Stephen C-T -- Du, Xiaoping -- HL062350/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL080264/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL109439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL080264/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL109439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 HL007829/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Nov 7;503(7474):131-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12613. Epub 2013 Oct 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162846" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antithrombins/adverse effects/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Binding Sites ; Bleeding Time ; *Cell Polarity ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, G12-G13/metabolism ; Hemorrhage/chemically induced ; Humans ; Integrin beta3/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Integrins/chemistry/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction/*drug effects ; Talin/metabolism ; Thrombosis/*drug therapy/metabolism/pathology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-05-05
    Description: Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause derepression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, which are predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376212/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3376212/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moissiard, Guillaume -- Cokus, Shawn J -- Cary, Joshua -- Feng, Suhua -- Billi, Allison C -- Stroud, Hume -- Husmann, Dylan -- Zhan, Ye -- Lajoie, Bryan R -- McCord, Rachel Patton -- Hale, Christopher J -- Feng, Wei -- Michaels, Scott D -- Frand, Alison R -- Pellegrini, Matteo -- Dekker, Job -- Kim, John K -- Jacobsen, Steven E -- F32 GM100617/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32GM100617/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM007185/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM075060/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM088565/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM60398/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG003143/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM075060/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM088565/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003143/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM060398/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 15;336(6087):1448-51. doi: 10.1126/science.1221472. Epub 2012 May 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California at Los Angeles, Terasaki Life Sciences Building, 610 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-723905, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22555433" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphatases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Animals ; Arabidopsis/enzymology/*genetics/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Caenorhabditis elegans ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Centromere ; DNA Methylation ; DNA Transposable Elements ; *Gene Silencing ; Genes, Plant ; Heterochromatin/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Histones/metabolism ; Methylation ; Mutation ; RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transgenes ; Up-Regulation
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-09-01
    Description: The mammalian circadian clock involves a transcriptional feed back loop in which CLOCK and BMAL1 activate the Period and Cryptochrome genes, which then feedback and repress their own transcription. We have interrogated the transcriptional architecture of the circadian transcriptional regulatory loop on a genome scale in mouse liver and find a stereotyped, time-dependent pattern of transcription factor binding, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) recruitment, RNA expression, and chromatin states. We find that the circadian transcriptional cycle of the clock consists of three distinct phases: a poised state, a coordinated de novo transcriptional activation state, and a repressed state. Only 22% of messenger RNA (mRNA) cycling genes are driven by de novo transcription, suggesting that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms underlie the mammalian circadian clock. We also find that circadian modulation of RNAPII recruitment and chromatin remodeling occurs on a genome-wide scale far greater than that seen previously by gene expression profiling.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694775/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koike, Nobuya -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung-Chung -- Kumar, Vivek -- Lee, Choogon -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS053616/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Oct 19;338(6105):349-54. doi: 10.1126/science.1226339. Epub 2012 Aug 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22936566" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ARNTL Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Animals ; CLOCK Proteins/metabolism ; Chromatin/*metabolism ; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly/genetics ; Circadian Clocks/*genetics ; Cryptochromes/*genetics ; DNA, Intergenic ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Epigenesis, Genetic ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Genetic Loci ; Histones/metabolism ; Liver/metabolism/*physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Period Circadian Proteins/genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics ; *Transcription, Genetic ; *Transcriptional Activation
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-12-12
    Description: The cJun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway contributes to inflammation and plays a key role in the metabolic response to obesity, including insulin resistance. Macrophages are implicated in this process. To test the role of JNK, we established mice with selective JNK deficiency in macrophages. We report that feeding a high-fat diet to control and JNK-deficient mice caused similar obesity, but only mice with JNK-deficient macrophages remained insulin-sensitive. The protection of mice with macrophage-specific JNK deficiency against insulin resistance was associated with reduced tissue infiltration by macrophages. Immunophenotyping demonstrated that JNK was required for pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. These studies demonstrate that JNK in macrophages is required for the establishment of obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3835653/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3835653/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Han, Myoung Sook -- Jung, Dae Young -- Morel, Caroline -- Lakhani, Saquib A -- Kim, Jason K -- Flavell, Richard A -- Davis, Roger J -- CA065861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK032520/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK080756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK090963/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK093000/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA065861/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK080756/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R24 DK090963/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U24 DK093000/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jan 11;339(6116):218-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1227568. Epub 2012 Dec 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223452" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/immunology/pathology ; Animals ; Diet, High-Fat ; Glucose Clamp Technique ; Immunophenotyping ; Inflammation/immunology/*physiopathology ; *Insulin Resistance ; Islets of Langerhans/pathology ; MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Macrophage Activation ; Macrophages/*enzymology/*immunology/physiology ; Mice ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Obesity/immunology/*physiopathology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-12-21
    Description: The inbred mouse C57BL/6J is the reference strain for genome sequence and for most behavioral and physiological phenotypes. However, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium uses an embryonic stem cell line derived from a related C57BL/6N substrain. We found that C57BL/6N has a lower acute and sensitized response to cocaine and methamphetamine. We mapped a single causative locus and identified a nonsynonymous mutation of serine to phenylalanine (S968F) in Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2 (Cyfip2) as the causative variant. The S968F mutation destabilizes CYFIP2, and deletion of the C57BL/6N mutant allele leads to acute and sensitized cocaine-response phenotypes. We propose that CYFIP2 is a key regulator of cocaine response in mammals and present a framework to use mouse substrains to identify previously unknown genes and alleles regulating behavior.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500108/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kumar, Vivek -- Kim, Kyungin -- Joseph, Chryshanthi -- Kourrich, Said -- Yoo, Seung-Hee -- Huang, Hung Chung -- Vitaterna, Martha H -- de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel -- Churchill, Gary -- Bonci, Antonello -- Takahashi, Joseph S -- F32 DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- F32DA024556/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH061915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH61915/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1508-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1245503.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9111, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24357318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage ; Cocaine/*administration & dosage ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/*genetics/*psychology ; *Drug-Seeking Behavior ; Methamphetamine/administration & dosage ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Mutation ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Phenylalanine/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Psychomotor Performance/drug effects ; Quantitative Trait Loci ; Serine/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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