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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-10-23
    Description: Cancer is a multistep process that involves mutations and other alterations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Genome sequencing studies have identified a large collection of genetic alterations that occur in human cancers. However, the determination of which mutations are causally related to tumorigenesis remains a major challenge. Here we describe a novel CRISPR/Cas9-based approach for rapid functional investigation of candidate genes in well-established autochthonous mouse models of cancer. Using a Kras(G12D)-driven lung cancer model, we performed functional characterization of a panel of tumour suppressor genes with known loss-of-function alterations in human lung cancer. Cre-dependent somatic activation of oncogenic Kras(G12D) combined with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of tumour suppressor genes resulted in lung adenocarcinomas with distinct histopathological and molecular features. This rapid somatic genome engineering approach enables functional characterization of putative cancer genes in the lung and other tissues using autochthonous mouse models. We anticipate that this approach can be used to systematically dissect the complex catalogue of mutations identified in cancer genome sequencing studies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292871/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4292871/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sanchez-Rivera, Francisco J -- Papagiannakopoulos, Thales -- Romero, Rodrigo -- Tammela, Tuomas -- Bauer, Matthew R -- Bhutkar, Arjun -- Joshi, Nikhil S -- Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Xue, Wen -- Jacks, Tyler -- K99 CA169512/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA169512/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 18;516(7531):428-31. doi: 10.1038/nature13906. Epub 2014 Oct 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; 1] Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [2] Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [2] Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA [3] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25337879" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/*genetics/pathology ; Animals ; *Caspase 9 ; *Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; *Genetic Engineering ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Lentivirus/genetics ; Lung Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Models, Genetic ; Mutation/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-04-08
    Description: Despite the high prevalence and poor outcome of patients with metastatic lung cancer the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis remain largely uncharacterized. Here we modelled human lung adenocarcinoma, which frequently harbours activating point mutations in KRAS and inactivation of the p53 pathway, using conditional alleles in mice. Lentiviral-mediated somatic activation of oncogenic Kras and deletion of p53 in the lung epithelial cells of Kras(LSL-G12D/+);p53(flox/flox) mice initiates lung adenocarcinoma development. Although tumours are initiated synchronously by defined genetic alterations, only a subset becomes malignant, indicating that disease progression requires additional alterations. Identification of the lentiviral integration sites allowed us to distinguish metastatic from non-metastatic tumours and determine the gene expression alterations that distinguish these tumour types. Cross-species analysis identified the NK2-related homeobox transcription factor Nkx2-1 (also called Ttf-1 or Titf1) as a candidate suppressor of malignant progression. In this mouse model, Nkx2-1 negativity is pathognomonic of high-grade poorly differentiated tumours. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in cells derived from metastatic and non-metastatic tumours demonstrated that Nkx2-1 controls tumour differentiation and limits metastatic potential in vivo. Interrogation of Nkx2-1-regulated genes, analysis of tumours at defined developmental stages, and functional complementation experiments indicate that Nkx2-1 constrains tumours in part by repressing the embryonically restricted chromatin regulator Hmga2. Whereas focal amplification of NKX2-1 in a fraction of human lung adenocarcinomas has focused attention on its oncogenic function, our data specifically link Nkx2-1 downregulation to loss of differentiation, enhanced tumour seeding ability and increased metastatic proclivity. Thus, the oncogenic and suppressive functions of Nkx2-1 in the same tumour type substantiate its role as a dual function lineage factor.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088778/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3088778/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Winslow, Monte M -- Dayton, Talya L -- Verhaak, Roel G W -- Kim-Kiselak, Caroline -- Snyder, Eric L -- Feldser, David M -- Hubbard, Diana D -- DuPage, Michel J -- Whittaker, Charles A -- Hoersch, Sebastian -- Yoon, Stephanie -- Crowley, Denise -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Chiang, Derek Y -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Jacks, Tyler -- K08 CA154784/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K99-CA151968/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-36/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-37/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-38/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-39/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051-40/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA151968/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109038/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32-HL007627/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306-11/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306-12/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA084306-13/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01-CA84306/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 May 5;473(7345):101-4. doi: 10.1038/nature09881. Epub 2011 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21471965" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenocarcinoma/genetics/physiopathology ; Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Disease Models, Animal ; Down-Regulation ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; HMGA2 Protein/genetics ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/physiopathology ; Mice ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-10-14
    Description: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also live in full darkness, at low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and are unable to sustain thermogenesis nor feel certain types of pain. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the naked mole rat genome, which reveals unique genome features and molecular adaptations consistent with cancer resistance, poikilothermy, hairlessness and insensitivity to low oxygen, and altered visual function, circadian rythms and taste sensing. This information provides insights into the naked mole rat's exceptional longevity and ability to live in hostile conditions, in the dark and at low oxygen. The extreme traits of the naked mole rat, together with the reported genome and transcriptome information, offer opportunities for understanding ageing and advancing other areas of biological and biomedical research.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3319411/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Eun Bae -- Fang, Xiaodong -- Fushan, Alexey A -- Huang, Zhiyong -- Lobanov, Alexei V -- Han, Lijuan -- Marino, Stefano M -- Sun, Xiaoqing -- Turanov, Anton A -- Yang, Pengcheng -- Yim, Sun Hee -- Zhao, Xiang -- Kasaikina, Marina V -- Stoletzki, Nina -- Peng, Chunfang -- Polak, Paz -- Xiong, Zhiqiang -- Kiezun, Adam -- Zhu, Yabing -- Chen, Yuanxin -- Kryukov, Gregory V -- Zhang, Qiang -- Peshkin, Leonid -- Yang, Lan -- Bronson, Roderick T -- Buffenstein, Rochelle -- Wang, Bo -- Han, Changlei -- Li, Qiye -- Chen, Li -- Zhao, Wei -- Sunyaev, Shamil R -- Park, Thomas J -- Zhang, Guojie -- Wang, Jun -- Gladyshev, Vadim N -- AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG021518-10/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AG038004-02/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA080946-11/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Oct 12;479(7372):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature10533.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological/*genetics ; Aging/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Body Temperature Regulation/genetics ; Carbon Dioxide/analysis/metabolism ; Circadian Rhythm/genetics ; Darkness ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomic Instability/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Ion Channels/genetics ; Longevity/*genetics/physiology ; Male ; Mitochondrial Proteins/genetics ; Mole Rats/*genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis/genetics ; Oxygen/analysis/metabolism ; Taste/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Visual Perception/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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