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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: continental dust ; Antarctica ; paleo-environment ; glacial age
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We have studied the distribution of 327 clay mineral particles retrieved from four Antaretic ice smaples corresponding to present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climate conditions. Illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite were identified in all samples. Focusing on kaolinite, because of its use as a possible tracer of low latitude soils, we find a significantly smaller amount for LGM samples while the dust concentration in snow during the LGM was about 30 times higher than for present climate conditions. This can be interpreted as change in the contribution of the Australian source with climate. A second approach was based on the modeling of the desert dust cycle using an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) under both present-day and ice age conditions. Unlike mineralogical results, the model suggests the prevalence of the Australian dust source in the deposits over East Antarctica under both present-day and LGM climate conditions. However the model fails to reproduce the strong increase in dust deposits during the LGM. This discrepancy could be partly due to the lack of a higher latitude dust source in the model. The stronger dust input recorded in ice cores for the LGM could be related to an additional active high latitude source (possibly close to South America) overlapping the atmospheric background coming from low latitude areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Antarctica ; ice core ; paleoclimate ; atmospheric aerosol ; dust
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Simultaneous measurements of soluble and insoluble impurities were made on the 950 m deep Vostok (78°30′S, 106°54′E, 3420 m a.s.l.) ice core, spanning roughly 50000 yr, using various analytical techniques. We observed higher continental (×37) and marine (×5.1) inputs during the last glacial age than during the Holocene stage. A study of microparticle compositions and of volcanic indicators (Zn, H2SO4), shows that the high observed crustal input is not due to enhanced volcanism, but is rather of continental eolian origin. For the first time, the ionic balance along a deep ice core is established, mainly used in discussing the evolution of the Cl to Na ratio over central East Antarctica with changing climatic conditions: the presence of relatively high amounts of Na2SO4 in the marine aerosol at the Vostok site during the Holocene is demonstrated. Comparison with the Dome C (74°39′S, 124°10′E, 3040 m a.s.l.) results confirms the chronology of the major events: (i) maximum terrestrial input around the last glacial maximum (∼18 ka BP); (ii) end of the high continental flux over Antarctica near 13 ka BP; (iii) marine input varying in an opposing manner to isotopic fluctuations with rather high concentrations beginning to decrease when isotopic values increase and reaching Holocene values at the end of the transition between cold and warmer climate conditions. Detailed comparison with results provided by deep ice cores from other sites which are probably more influenced by oceanic air masses seems to indicate that most of the aerosol reaching central East Antarctica travel over large distance probably at rather high altitude through the troposphere. We can consider that central East Antarctica is well representative of the upper part of the troposphere (higher than i.e., 3000 m) and should, therefore, provide valuable data for global and Antarctic paleoclimatological models.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motor unit types ; Twitch and tetanic tensions ; Potentiation ; Peroneus tertius muscle ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motor units of the cat peroneus tertius muscle were systematically analyzed using the criteria established by Burke et al. (1973). On the basis of their speed of contraction and resistance to fatigue, 121 (97%) of 125 motor units examined in ten adult cats could be classified as belonging to one of four types: fast-fatiguable (FF), fast-resistant (FR), fast-intermediate (FI), and slow-resistant (S). Peroneus tertius was found to contain 30% FF motor units, 9% FI units, 39% FR units, and 22% S units. Contraction times of fast motor units (FF, FR, and FI) ranged from 15 to 27 ms and those of S units from 26 to 42 ms. The mean tetanic tensions were 37 g for FF units, 29 g for FI units, 7.5 g for FR units, and 1.1 g for S units. Fast motor units displayed considerable post-tetanic potentiation of twitch tension. Under similar conditions of stimulation, FF units appeared able to potentiate more and faster than FR units.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindle ; Fusimotor ; Afferent ; Intrafusal contraction ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Responses of secondary endings of muscle spindles of the peroneus tertius muscle of the anaesthetized cat have been recorded during repetitive stimulation of functionally single fusimotor fibres that produced slowing of the discharge. In a sample of 125 pairs of single fusimotor fibres and secondary spindle afferents 5 examples of slowing were seen. The amount of slowing became less at longer muscle lengths. Conditioning the spindle by stimulating the muscle nerve at fusimotor strength, at a length 2.5 mm longer than the test length, and then returning to the test length 3 seconds later led to a greater degree of slowing of the discharge than after conditioning stimulation at the test length. With one exception, responses to muscle stretch were reduced during stimulation of a fusimotor fibre that produced slowing. On two occasions stimulating a fusimotor fibre that produced slowing of the response of one secondary ending, led to excitation of two other endings. Two possible explanations for the generation of slowing responses have been considered. The first is that the slowing is the result of contraction of the region of intrafusal fibre directly underlying the secondary sensory ending. The second, which we favour since it accounts for the facts more adequately, is that slowing is the result of shortening of the region of nuclear chain fibres on which the sensory ending lies, produced by movement in an adjacent nuclear bag fibre.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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