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  • ANDROGEN-RECEPTOR  (1)
  • ANTAGONISTS  (1)
  • Antibiotics  (1)
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  • 1
    Keywords: OPTIMIZATION ; RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; VITRO ; GENE ; GENES ; BIOLOGY ; ASSAY ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; NETHERLANDS ; RECEPTORS ; ER ; signaling ; SCIENCE ; methods ; ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ; CHEMICALS ; ANTAGONISTS ; ANDROGEN ; androgens ; in vitro ; reporter gene assay ; RANGE ; ANDROGEN-RECEPTOR ; PANEL ; Prevalidation ; ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ; REPORTER ; Hershberger assay ; Androgen reporter gene assay ; BIOASSAYS ; HUMAN CELL-LINE
    Abstract: To date there are no validated methods available to test androgenicity or antiandrogenicity in vitro. A problem with testing androgenicity using reporter genes is the possibility by other steroid receptors than androgen receptors to activate the same reporter gene, thereby lowering selectivity. To avoid this we have established a robust and very selective method, the AR CALUX reporter gene assay, to test androgenic and antiandrogenic activity of compounds in vitro. This assay uses a human U2-OS cell line stably transfected with the human androgen receptor and an androgen receptor responsive reporter gene. We optimized protocols to be used in combination with AR CALUX cells and carried out an in house prevalidation. In addition we successfully transferred this assay to another laboratory, leading to comparable test results with a panel of androgen receptor agonists and antagonists. The assay was able to readily rank a range of chemicals on the basis of their EC50 values. The CALUX assay was found to be selective for androgens and seemed not influenced by signaling through other steroid receptors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20438827
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Intensive care units ; Streptococcus ; Antibiotics ; Antibiotic resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective The effect of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) on Intensive Therapy Unit (ITU)-acquired enterococcal infection and colonization was studied. Changes in the predominant species isolated and resistance patterns to antimicrobial agents were also studied. Design Three groups were investigated: historical control (HC), contemporaneous control (CC) and patients receiving SDD (topical polymyxin, amphoterecin B and tobramycin throughout ITU stay with intravenous ceftazidime for the first 3 days only). Setting Adult general ITU with 7 beds. Patients Patients with a nasogastric tube in situ and who were likely to remain in ITU for 48 h or longer were recruited. Results Enterococcal infections occured in 3 of 84 HC patients and 2 of 91 CC patients. There were no unit-acquired enterococcal infections in the SDD group. There were 140 episodes of enterococcal colonization occurring in 112 patients, with significantly more in the SDD and CC groups (p〈0.05. There were no significant differences in antibiotic sensitivities between the three groups.Enterococcus faecalis was the most frequently isolated species. Conclusion SDD does not predispose to enterococcal infection but does encourage colonization in patients receiving the regimen and other patients in ITU at the same. There is a complex interaction of factors which influence faecal flora and the likelihood of patients becoming colonized or infected with enterococci.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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