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  • 1
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Altitude ; Hypobaric chamber ; Physical training ; Aerobic metabolism ; Erythropoiesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of training in a hypobaric chamber on aerobic metabolism were studied in five high performance triathletes. During 3 weeks, the subjects modified their usual training schedule (approximately 30 h a week), replacing three sessions of bicycling exercise by three sessions on a cycle ergometer in a hypobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 4,000 m (462 mm Hg). Prior to and after training in the hypobaric chamber the triathletes performed maximal and submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (462 mm Hg). Respiratory and cardiac parameters were recorded during exercise. Lactacidaemia was measured during maximal exercise. Blood samples were drawn once a week to monitor blood cell parameters and erythropoetin concentrations. Training in the hypobaric chamber had no effect on erythropoiesis, the concentrations of erythropoetin always remaining unchanged, and no effect on the maximal oxygen uptake ( $$\dot V$$ O2max) and maximal aerobic capacity measured in normoxia or hypoxia. Submaximal performance increased by 34% during a submaximal exhausting exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 2,000 m. During a submaximal nonexhausting test, ventilation values tended to decrease for similar exercise intensities after training in hypoxia. The changes in these parameters and the improved performance found for submaximal exercise may have been the result of changes taking place in muscle tissue or the result of training the respiratory muscles.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Retinoids ; Vaginal epithelium ; Differentiation ; Keratin ; Apoptosis ; Estradiol ; Progesterone ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. In rodents, the vaginal epithelium shows cyclic changes with an alternating pattern of keratinization under estrogen control and mucification under progesterone control. Retinoids are powerful regulators of cell differentiation, an excess of retinoids suppressing the keratinizing differentiation of keratinocytes. Here, we have examined the vaginal epithelium during the estrous cycle and compare the effects of retinoids on both types of hormonally induced differentiation, i.e. keratinization and mucification. All-trans retinoic acid was administred either by daily injections during the estrous cycle or by a single injection before the estrogen rise; these two protocols gave similar results. Retinoic acid suppressed estrogen-induced vaginal keratinization and cytokeratin K10 expression (a biochemical marker of terminal differentiation). Progesterone-induced mucification was not impaired; however, retinoic acid impeded mucous cell desquamation, suggesting an effect of retinoic acid on cell adhesiveness. Retinoic acid induced the appearance of apoptotic-like cells, as revealed by immunocytochemical staining of DNA fragmentation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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