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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Relationships between the total energy E, the nuclear-electronic attraction energy Vne, and the interelectronic repulsion energy Vee are derived for isoelectronic series of atoms and ions. Using these, it is possible to determine Vne and Vee for the members of such series from a knowledge of just their total energies. The method is applied to the ground and first excited states of the two-electron series, and the ground states of the three- and four-electron series, and the results are discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This article summarizes and extends our computational studies (ab initio, SCF-MO) of the reactive properties of halogenated hydrocarbon epoxides. For five such epoxides (ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, chlorooxirane, trans-dichlorooxirane, and epichlorohydrin), we analyze and compare first the energy requirements for stretching the C—O and C—Cl bonds, and second, the reactivities of the epoxide ring carbons toward a model nucleophile, ammonia. At each step along the various reaction pathways, the structure of the system was reoptimized. The epoxides were taken to be protonated, either on the oxygen or on the chlorine. Ring opening via monomolecular rupture of a C—O bond was found to occur significantly more readily when there is a —CH3 or —Cl substituent on the carbon. Epichlorohydrin is exceptional, in that stretching a C—O bond leads to a movement of the chlorine toward the carbon in question, forming a three- or four-membered ring. The stretching of protonated C—Cl bonds has remarkably low energy requirements, even when the carbon is not part of the epoxide ring. The interactions with ammonia produced intermediate complexes, which are particularly stable when there is a chlorine on the other ring carbon. The formation of the primary in vivo DNA alkylation product of vinyl chloride, suggested as being responsible for the carcinogenicity of the latter, is discussed. The most negative values of the electrostatic potentials near the oxygens of 21 different epoxides are listed and analyzed in terms of their relationship to the nature of the substituent on the epoxide ring. Also discussed are our earlier findings that epoxide carcinogenicity appears to be associated with a relatively strong negative potential near the oxygen, and that the abilities of epoxides to inhibit epoxide hydrase correlate well with this oxygen potential (modified by a parameter to take account of steric effects).
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The aim of this study has been to determine how the hydrogen bond between formaldehyde and ammonia is affected by the ring-opening interaction of protonated ethylene oxide with the ammonia nitrogen. Our purpose is to gain insight into the possible effect of carcinogenic epoxides upon the hydrogen bonding within DNA base pairs; it is known that such epoxides react with nucleophilic sites in DNA, including amine nitrogens that are involved in hydrogen bonds to carbonyl groups. We have used an ab initio self-consistent-field molecular orbital procedure to compute optimized structures, interaction energies, and other properties of interest. The H2CO·HNH2 system and the protonated epoxide were found to form two stable complexes, with syn and anti orientations. Their formation is accompanied by a significant overall strengthening of the H2CO·HNH2 hydrogen bond, as indicated by both calculated force constants and bond lengths. An analysis of these and other properties, such as atomic charges, suggests that the interaction is leading to the formation of N-protonated ethanolamine, which is linked to the formaldehyde through the proton on the nitrogen. If carcinogenic epoxides have a similar strengthening effect upon some of the hydrogen bonds in DNA, it could interfere in the replication and transcription processes.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have carried out a computational study of the reactive properties of chlorooxirane, the metabolically produced epoxide of vinyl chloride that is believed to be a direct-acting carcinogenic form of this molecule. An ab initio SCF-MO procedure (GAUSSIAN 70) was used to compute the energy requirements for stretching the C—Cl and both C—O bonds (SN1 reactivity) and to determine the course of the epoxide's possible SN2 reactions with ammonia, taken as a model for nucleophilic sites on DNA. The epoxide was assumed to be protonated; both the oxygen- and chloro-protonated forms were considered. At each step along the various reaction pathways, the structure of the system was reoptimized. For the oxygen-protonated epoxide, the C1—O bond has a significantly lower energy barrier to stretching than does the C2—O. (The carbon bearing the chlorine is designated C1.) However, both are very much higher than that of the C—Cl bond in the chloro-protonated form, confirming our earlier finding of the relative weakness of this bond. In the SN2 processes involving ammonia, intermediate complexes are formed with both carbons of the oxygen-protonated epoxide, the C2-complex being the more stable. However, the most stable ammonia complex occurs at C1 of the chloro-protonated epoxide. Our calculated results, both the energies and also the geometry changes, allow us to propose two possible mechanisms for the formation of the 7-N-(2-oxoethyl) derivative of guanine that has been observed to be the major in vivo DNA alkylation product of vinyl chloride and has been suggested as possibly being responsible for its carcinogenicity. One of these mechanisms is SN1 and starts with the chloro-protonated epoxide; the other is SN2 and involves the oxygen-protonated form.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Our objective in this work is to gain insight into the contrasting carcinogenic activities of vinyl chloride (definitely carcinogenic) and trans-dichloroethylene (apparently inactive). The initial metabolic step for each molecule is believed to be epoxidation of the double bond, and there is evidence indicating that for vinyl chloride, this epoxide (chlorooxirane) is its ultimate (direct-acting) carcinogenic form. This article presents the findings of a computational study of the reactive properties of trans-dichlorooxirane (the epoxide of trans-dichloroethylene). An ab initio SCF-MO procedure was used to determine the energy requirements for stretching the C—O and C—Cl bonds (SN1 reactivity) and to study the epoxide's SN2 interactions with ammonia, taken as a model nucleophile. The starting points were the oxygen- and chlorine-protonated forms of the epoxide. The structure of the system was reoptimized at each step along the various reaction pathways. The results of this work are compared to an analogous earlier study of the reactive properties of chlorooxirane. The chlorineprotonated C—Cl bonds are found to have much lower energy barriers to stretching than do the oxygen-protonated C—O bonds. In the SN2 processes, intermediate complexes are formed with ammonia by both the oxygen- and the chlorine-protonated epoxides; the latter complexes are the more stable. Based on our results, we propose two mechanisms (one SN1 and the other SN2) whereby trans-dichlorooxirane can interact with N7 of guanine to produce an adduct analogous to one formed by chlorooxirane, which has been found to be the primary in vivo DNA alkylation product of vinyl chloride and to which has been attributed the carcinogenicity of the latter. Overall, trans-dichlorooxirane is found to be chemically more reactive than chlorooxirane; this may help to account for the much lesser carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of trans-dichloroethylene, since the epoxide may be reacting with other cellular nucleophiles before it reaches the key site(s) at which the carcinogenic or mutagenic interaction would occur. We also offer some speculations concerning other possible factors related to the differing carcinogenicities of vinyl chloride and trans-dichloroethylene, such as ease of epoxide formation and the likelihood of oxygen protonation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have carried out an ab initio STO-5G computational analysis of the electrostatic potentials of four structural analogues of the highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and four related aromatic systems benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and two isomeric benzoflavones. These systems, to varying degrees, induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and are believed to interact with the same cytosolic receptor in initiating their biochemical responses. Our present results for the TCDD analogues support and have allowed us to further qualify our early observations regarding factors which are linked to high biological activities in the dibenzo-p-dioxins and structurally similar systems. We find that a high degree of activity appears to require nonoverlapping negative potentials above all or most of the lateral regions, with an observed optimum range of magnitudes. In systems with central oxygens, it is required that the negative oxygen potentials be small and weak; however, oxygen negative regions in the molecule are not necessary for high activity. The observed differences between the potential patterns of the four aromatic systems and those of TCDD and its active analogues may reflect an inherent dissimilarity in the nature of their interactions with the cytosolic receptor. That the carbonyl oxygen negative potential of 7,8-benzoflavone is significantly more negative than its isomer's supports earlier speculation concerning the former's more effective inhibiting effects on metabolic oxidation.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio self-consistent-field molecular orbital (SCF-MO) procedure has been used to compute the average local ionization energies [Ī(r)] of some strained molecules on three-dimensional surfaces defined by the contour of electronic density equal to 0.002 electrons/bohr3. Ī(r) is rigorously defined within the framework of SCF-MO theory and can be interpreted as the average energy needed to ionize an electron at any point in the space of a molecule. Thus, the positions of the smallest Ī(r) values (ĪSmin) on the surfaces of molecules are the sites expected to be the most reactive to electrophiles. We find ĪSmin, near the C—C bond midpoints of saturated three-membered, but not foru-membered, hydrocarbon rings. These ĪS,min are interpreted as reflecting the “σ-aromatic” character of the former. Our Ī(r) data effectively provide a “fingerprint” characterizing saturated three-membered rings, which is useful, for example, in analyzing molecules such as [1.1.1] propellane. Our results for the latter are consistent with the interpretation of it having a biradical character, as has been suggested earlier.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using an ab initio self-consistent-field molecular orbital approach, we have computed 6-31G*//STO-3G* electrostatic potentials for CH3F, CF4, CH3Cl, CCl4, CH3Br, and CBr4. It is demonstrated that the potentials along the carbon-halogen bonds of these systems can explain the observed directional preferences of the halogens' intermolecular interactions. Our surface potentials for the chlorinated and brominated molecules favor the observed “side-on” and “head-on” interactions with electrophiles and nucleophiles, respectively, of C—Cl and C—Br in crystals, whereas the potentials of CH3F and CF4 are indicative of fluorine interacting only with electrophiles, as is found experimentally. The strongly positive potentials at the ends of the chlorines and bromines in CCl4 and CBr4 are consistent with complexes that these form with electron donors, e.g., the π regions of benzene and p-xylene and the lone pairs of pyridine and tetrahydrofuran. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The X-NO2 rotational energy barriers of nitromethane, nitroethylene, nitrobenzene, and a group of nitramines have been computed using a local density functional (LDF) procedure, using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF)-optimized structures of the ground and rotational transition states. The results have been discussed in relation to HF and some correlated ab initio values and the available experimental data. Our LDF barriers are overall quite reasonable, in generally satisfactory agreement with the experimental and correlated ab initio results. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have computed ab initio HF/6-31+G* electrostatic potentials and average local ionization energies on the molecular surfaces of the Group V-VII hydrides and corresponding anions of the first three rows of the periodic table. The surfaces were defined to be specified contours (0.002 or 0.001 au) of the molecular electronic density. The most negative potentials, VS,min, and lowest ionization energies ĪS,min, were located and determined. Their magnitudes separately satisfy limited correlations with gas-phase protonation enthalpies and aqueous pKa values. Our results indicate that VS,min, and ĪS,min are complementary, the former reflecting electrostatic factors and the latter being related to charge transfer/polarization. More general relationships for protonation enthalpies are obtained when both VS,min and ĪS,min are explicitly included. Solution-phase and gas-phase acidities are shown to correlate very well if electrostatic effects are explicitly taken into account. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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