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  • Atrial natriuretic factor  (1)
  • Blood pressure  (1)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)  (1)
  • Springer  (3)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (3)
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd
  • German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
  • Elsevier
Years
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Apnoea testing ; Brain death ; Blood pressure ; Heart rate ; Cardiovascular changes ; Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring ; CO2 insufflation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To determine changes of blood pressure and heart rate during apnoea testing for brain death without (A) and with (B) artificial CO2 augmentation. Design: Prospective, consecutive study. Setting: 12 intensive care units in six towns in Northern Bavaria. Patients and participants: A total of 55 apnoea tests were performed on 55 consecutive patients as part of the determination of brain death, 27 without and 28 with CO2 augmentation. Interventions: Apnoea tests following oxygenation with 100 % O2 either after reduction of ventilatory volume (A) or after insufflation of CO2 during normoventilation (B). In each case, an arterial partial CO2 pressure of at least 8 kPa was documented. Results: All apnoea tests were without serious adverse effects (hypoxia, newly induced cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac asystole). An increased dopamine infusion rate was deemed necessary in only one case of group (A) because of marked systolic hypotension ( 〈 8 kPa). Individual variation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) did not exceed + 62 to –46 % and + 49 to –52 % respectively, in group (A) and + 35 to –57 % and + 40 to –48 % respectively, in group (B). Variation of heart rate (HR) remained within the range + 24 to –31 % in group (A) and + 37 to –22 % in group (B). Conclusions: HR varied less than BP. The possibility of a marked relative rise or fall of BP in group (A) was equal; in group (B) there was a lower chance of rising BP. The chances for a rise or fall in HR were equal for the two groups. There was a tendency for less variation of cardiovascular parameters in group (B).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic factor ; Cyclosporin A ; heart transplantation ; renal function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mechanism(s) causing high levels of plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in cardiac allograft recipients is(are) unclear. The kidney is important for the clearance of ANF and renal function may decline with cyclosporin A therapy in these patients. The relationship between plasma ANF level and renal function and also the pharmacokinetics of a continuous infusion of ANF (15.5 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 60 min) was examined in 6 cardiac allograft recipients on cyclosporin A therapy. Resting plasma ANF levels were significantly higher in these patients than in 8 healthy subjects (71 vs. 21 ng·l−1). Both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were significantly lower in these patients than in healthy subjects (215 vs. 617 ml·min−1 and 55 vs. 102 ml·min−1 respectively). There was a significant inverse correlation between plasma ANF and ERPF (r=-0.86) and between plasma ANF and GFR (r=-0.81). During the period of ANF infusion, steady state plasma ANF levels were significantly higher in cardiac allograft recipients. Total body clearance of ANF was marginally lower in these patients than in healthy subjects (60 vs. 10.0 l·min−1) although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Derived endogenous secretion rate of ANF was threefold higher in patients when compared to healthy subjects (633 vs. 208 ng·min−1). We have therefore shown that cardiac allograft recipients on cyclosporin A have elevated plasma ANF levels and also decreased renal function. Pharmacokinetic analysis have shown that this increase in plasma ANF levels is due more to increased ANF secretion than to decreased ANF clearance in these patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1750
    Keywords: Pneumoconiosis ; N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase ; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ; Disease models ; Animal macrophages
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract N-acetyl-beta(β)-D-glucosaminidase is a lysosomal enzyme secreted by alveolar macrophages in response to phagocytosis of particulate material. Alveolar macrophages participate in the degradation and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue that results in pneumoconiosis. Known quantities of four characterized respirable dusts were bronchoscopically placed into the right caudal lung lobe of macaque monkeys. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected from dust-exposed right lung and unexposed left lung of the same individuals at 2-week intervals for 12 weeks after dust instillation. The samples were tested for N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity to determine if the enzyme levels could serve as an indicator of pulmonary injury induced by generic coal dusts when compared to known fibrogenic and nuisance dusts. Installation of generic quartz, anthracite, or TiO2 dusts produced significant elevations of enzyme activity and increased numbers of macrophages in the dust-exposed lobes. Elevations in enzymatic activity and macrophage numbers were greatest in response to generic quartz dust. These results suggest that quantitative levels of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity may be a useful indicator of acute and chronic lung injury following exposure to fibrogenic and nonfibrogenic dusts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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