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  • p-Aminohippurate  (2)
  • Autologous stem cell transplantation  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Hodgkin's disease ; Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ; Salvage therapy ; ASHAP protocol ; High-dose therapy ; Autologous stem cell transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: This study was performed to examine the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of adriamycin (ADR), methylprednisolone (solumedrol), cytarabine (Ara-C), and cisplatin (CDDP) in patients with recurrent and refractory malignant lymphomas. Patients and methods: Sixty-five patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) (n=14) or non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) (n=51) were enrolled in the study. The ASHAP therapy consisted of ADR (40 mg/m2 by continuous infusion (CI) over 96 h), methylprednisolone (500 mg i.v., days 1–5), Ara-C (2 g/m2 as a 2-h infusion on day 5), and CDDP (100 mg/m2 by CI over 96 h). Results: Twenty-five patients (38%) achieved complete remission (CR) and 20 (31%) were taken into partial remission (PR) for an overall response rate of 69%. Thirty-two patients with CR or PR following ASHAP underwent high-dose therapy (HDT) with subsequent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After a median follow-up of 52 months, 13 patients are in continuous CR (CCR), the 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 30% for responders and 21% for all patients. The median overall survival (OS) was 12 months (range 0–70 months), and the OS rate after 3 years was 32%. Unfavorable prognostic factors for EFS and OS by univariate analysis were an elevated value of the serum lactate dehydrogenase and refractory lymphoma. The most frequently observed side effects following ASHAP were leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia of World Health Organization (WHO) grades III/IV in approximately 80% of all courses. Non-hematological toxicities such as gastrointestinal side effects, infections, mucositis, renal and neurotoxicity occurred more rarely and reached WHO grades III/IV only occasionally. No treatment-related mortality with ASHAP was observed. Conclusions: ASHAP is an effective and moderately toxic salvage therapy for patients with recurrent or refractory HD and NHL. The results in patients responding to ASHAP and afterwards undergoing HDT with stem cell support are comparable with other established protocols and indicate an improvement in survival if HDT is carried out as intensification.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma ; Renal tubular transport ; Renal cortical slices ; p-Aminohippurate ; Human ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In vitro accumulation ofp-aminohippurate (PAH) was investigated in “intact” human renal cortical slices of normal kidney tissue and in tissue slices of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The technique used was established in preliminary experiments on rat kidney tissue slices. In principle, the accumulation capacity is comparable in renal tissue slices of both species (slice to medium accumulation ratios between 4 and 8). In man sex differences in accumulation capacity do not exist. But, as shown in detail for rats, accumulation capacity drops with age. Tissue slices of RCC are unable to accumulate PAH actively; slice to medium ratio reaches about 1 and indicates passive PAH uptake only. Surprisingly, in tumors of stage pTl PAH uptake is lowest, perhaps as a sign of PAH transport out of the cells. There is no difference between peripheral and central parts of RCC. Age and sex are without influence on PAH uptake in RCC tissue slices. Interestingly, the accumulation capacity of “intact” tissue of kidneys infested with RCC also depends on the severity of the tumor (stage, diameter), but not on grading and formation of metastases.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Key words Renal tubular transport ; p-Aminohippurate ; Stimulation ; Renal cell carcinoma ; Dexamethasone ; Triiodothyronine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This paper is the third of a long-term planned series of papers dealing with ex vivo investigations of drug transport in human kidney. The aims of this study are (a) to investigate whether or not human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can actively accumulate p-aminohippurate (PAH) and (b) to test the response of RCC on dexamethasone or triiodothyronine (T3) using tissue slices ex vivo. By this approach, the accumulation capacity of RCC should be stimulated as a prerequisite for an increased uptake of anti-tumour drugs. Tissue slices of RCC samples of 30 patients were incubated for 24 h in Williams medium E containing 0.01–50 μM dexamethasone or T3. Thereafter, slices were placed in PAH-containing Cross–Taggart medium, and PAH uptake into kidney tissue was measured for 2h under standardised conditions as described previously. In intact human renal cortical slices, PAH uptake capacity, expressed as slice to medium ratio (Q S/M), was about 2.8 ± 0.16 after 24 h of incubation and increased significantly in dexamethasone-containing medium in a concentration-dependent manner, up to ∼150%, whereas T3 did not influence PAH accumulation. On the other hand, in RCC the PAH accumulation capacity was completely abolished (Q S/M∼1). However, after administration of dexamethasone, the accumulated amount of PAH increased significantly in RCC tissue in a concentration-dependent manner, up to ∼190%. T3 was without effect in RCC, too. Surprisingly, the dexamethasone-mediated stimulation could be differentiated into responders and non-responders, with maximal effects at different concentrations for each patient. Nevertheless, the maximal transport rates remained low in RCC, even under hormone influence. In conclusion, a moderate stimulation of tubular transport capacity can be shown ex vivo in human RCC. This phenomenon is only of a relatively low degree compared with intact renal tissue. However, in principle, the response of RCC on dexamethasone could form a basis for further therapeutic strategies to overcome multi-drug resistance in RCC patients. For this purpose, additional experiments analysing the expression of transporters of the ABC cassette-type are in progress.
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