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  • Immunohistochemistry  (4)
  • Autoradiography  (2)
  • Springer  (6)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Endocrine tissues ; Endocrine tumours ; Cytoskeleton ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gel-electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence and distribution of intermediate filament proteins, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, neurofilament proteins and glial fibrillary acidic protein were assessed immunohistochemically in pituitary adenomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, endocrine pancreatic tumours, gastric, intestinal and bronchial carcinoids, parathyroid adenomas, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas and related non-neoplastic tissues. In some cases, immunohistochemical results were correlated with cytoskeletal proteins as analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cytokeratin antibodies with broad range of immunoreactivity (i.e. to murine liver cytokeratin component D) reacted with epithelial cells in all non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related neuroendocrine tumours studied, except for adrenal medulla, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, independently of hormone production and biological behaviour. In contrast, antibodies to epidermis-derived cytokeratins failed to stain endocrine tissues and tumours. Paranuclear cytokeratin accumulations were seen in bronchial, gastric, and intestinal carcinoids and seem to be a common feature of neuroendocrine tumours. One-and two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related tumours revealed two major keratin polypeptides corresponding to cytokeratins No. 8 and 18 of the cytokeratin catalog of human cells (Moll et al. 1982). According to this cytokeratin polypeptide composition, endocrine tissues and related tumours conform to the “simple type” of epithelia. Vimentin-related immunoreactivity was restricted to stromal cells and to folliculo-stellate cells in normal pituitary gland, Schwann cells in carcinoids and satellite cells in normal adrenal medulla and in pheochromocytomas. Neurofilament protein- (70 kD)-antibodies only stained nerve fibers in normal tissues and at the periphery of carcinoid tumour cell complexes, and, to a variable degree, cells in nontumorous adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Furthermore, neurofilament reactivity was observed along with cytokeratin expression in two bronchial carcinoids.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Thyroid ; C Cells ; Peptides ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary C cells of thyroid are known to express a variety of products beside calcitonin. These include the peptides PDN21 (katacalcin), calcitoningene related peptide (CGRP), bombesin and somatostatin. The expression of these products has been investigated by immunohistochemistry of thyroid tissue in six age ranges from fetal to late adult life. PDN 21 was found to have co-expression with calcitonin. CGRP and bombesin both demonstrated an age-related increase in numbers and intensity of cells stained. Somatostatin immunoreactivity was limited to small numbers of cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Amygdala ; Immunohistochemistry ; Schizophrenia ; Huntington's chorea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The location of the neuropeptides methionine-enkephalin (ME), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) within the amygdaloid complex of healthy human individuals, schizophrenics and patients suffering from Huntington's chorea was studied qualitatively by means of immunohistochemistry. VIP-like immunoreactivity (IR) was present predominantly in a dense cluster of fibers and terminals in the central amygdaloid nucleus. ME-IR was observed in fibers, terminals and cell bodies in the same subnucleus, exhibiting a characteristical distribution pattern. NT-positive cell bodies were situated within the center of the central amygdaloid nucleus, fibers and terminals being encountered mainly at the periphery. NPY-IR was found to be evenly distributed throughout the amygdala. Distribution and staining intensity of ME, NPY and NT in the amygdala showed no qualitatively recognizable difference between the normal and schizophrenic specimens, whereas VIP-IR appeared to be slightly increased in the central amygdaloid nucleus of schizophrenics. In the choreic cases, the considerably shrunken amygdala exhibited only very low staining intensity of the four investigated neuropeptides.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neuronal markers ; Neuropeptides ; Immunohistochemistry ; Heart innervation ; Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The innervation and myocardial cells of the human atrial appendage were investigated by means of immunocytochemical and ultrastructural techniques using both tissue sections and whole mount preparations. A dense innervation of the myocardium, blood vessels and endocardium was revealed with antisera to general neuronal (protein gene product 9.5 and synaptophysin) and Schwann cell markers (S-100). The majority of nerve fibres possessed neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and were found associated with myocardial cells, around small arteries and arterioles at the adventitial-medial border and forming a plexus in the endocardium. Subpopulations of nerve fibres displayed immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In whole-mount preparations of endocardium, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities were found to coexist in the same varicose nerve terminals. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of numerous varicose terminals associated with myocardial, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity was localised to large electron-dense secretory vesicles in nerve terminals which also contained numerous small vesicles. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity occurred exclusively in myocardial cells where it was localised to large secretory vesicles. The human atrial appendage comprises a neuroendocrine complex of peptidecontaining nerves and myocardial cells producing ANP.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide receptors ; Sympathetic ganglia ; Autoradiography ; Cell culture ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites on cells in dissociated culture preparations of neonatal rat superior cervical ganglia and in explant cultures of rat thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia has been studied. The autoradiographic visualisation of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites has been combined with the use of specific immunocytochemical markers for glial cells (antiserum to S-100 protein), fibroblasts (antiserum to fibronectin) and neurones (antiserum to protein gene product 9.5) in order to achieve unambiguous identification of the cell types in culture. Specific binding sites for rat125I-atrial natriuretic peptide(1–28) were observed over subpopulations of fibronectin-like-immunoreactive fibroblasts and S-100-like-immunoreactive glia in the dissociated superior cervical ganglion cultures. However, only a subpopulation of fibronectin-like-immunoreactive fibroblasts possessed atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites in the explant culture preparations. No atrial natriuretic peptide-like-immunoreactive cells were present in either culture. The distribution of autoradiographic grains over individual cell surfaces in culture was uniform, but there were distinct differences in the density of labelling of single cells of the same type. This apparent variation in the number of binding sites on glial cells and fibroblasts in culture did not seem to be related to the morphology of the cells or the surrounding cell types. No sympathetic neurones were labelled with autoradiographic grains in either the dissociated or explant culture preparations. However, the presence of atrial natriuretic peptide binding sites on non-neuronal cells of sympathetic ganglia in culture may be linked to the relationship between atrial natriuretic peptide and the sympathetic nervous system.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide ; Binding sites ; Heart ; Autoradiography ; Cell culture ; Rat ; Guineapig
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Dissociated cell culture preparations from rat and guinea-pig atria and interatrial septum, and from rat ventricles were studied using a combined autoradiographic and immunocytochemical approach. Alphaatrial natriuretic peptide (125I-ANP1-128) binding sites were confined to subpopulations of identified non-neuronal cells in each type of culture preparation, and had distinct patterns of labelling. The density of ANP1-28 binding sites was substantially greater in guinea-pig cultures than in rat cultures and was least in rat ventricular cultures. ANP1-28-labelled subpopulations of S-100-like immunoreactive glial cells were only seen in guinea-pig cultures. Von Willebrand factor (vWF)-like immunoreactive endothelial cells and vWF-negative endothelioid cells expressed ANP1-28 binding sites in both the guinea-pig and rat atrial cultures, but were unlabelled in rat ventricular cultures. In contrast, labelled subpopulations of fibronectin-like immunoreactive fibroblasts were present in all of the three types of culture preparation studied. ANP-like immunoreactive myocytes were present in both atrial and ventricular cultures. These cells did not, however, express ANP1-28 binding sites.
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